Philosophy in English...different books...

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Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 10 Jun - 8:38

Hello everyone!Again this I’m in another part of the same book...I know,I said it was the last...but I have another one which’s good...I’m sorry if I wasn’t there yesterday because I was outside…
In his essay concerning human understanding,John Locke asked:What can the mind know and how does he know it?
Knowledge is constructed by the mind’s discovery of agreement or disagreement among its ideas,none of which is innate.
Because knowledge is a relationship among ideas,it’s in principle capable of being universal,necessary and certain,but only insofar as it’s internal to the mind. But the simple ideas in the mind,being the effects of primary sensations, come from the world outside the mind.
Thinfs in the world have causal “ produce our primary sensations of things “out there” and of their actions on one another.
Locke argued that careful reflection on experience,separating primary and secondary sensations,in the form of controlled experimentation and logical reasoning,allows us to know that there are objects external to us,possessing distinctive “powers” to act on us and on another in regular,lawful ways.
This knowledge isn’t demonstrative;it cannot be as certain as the knowledge we have of our own existence or of mathematics,but it’s “certain enough” for all our needs.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Fri 16 Jun - 8:55

Hello everyone!For this week,I chosed something in Science war,I think… In my personal life,all is good for me except the government who like to kidding me…We don’t see the world in the same way at all and it’s very frustrating for me. And I don’t have any problem with my view… In my point of view they are in a wrong way,sincerely… and the results are my guarantee…I’m against Trudeau who’s for me an idiot and a shame for this country...and for many others too...And the Qc government isn’t certainly not an example of intelligence.
The Enlightenment vision defines what we mean by modernity. The pursuit of knowledge had taken a new turn in the 17th century. Descartes argued that only in mathematics, because of the deductive character of its reasoning did we actually possess knowledge. Philosophers had yet to achieve anything they knew with certainty in spite of almost 2000 years of trying. The claim to knowledge in religion was controversial and rested on claims of revelation,not reason.
Modern science proposed effective ways of achieving knowledge of nature using reason. By the 18th century,belief in the idea of progress was commonplace,and science and technology were among its principal supports. Knowledge of nature became associated with progress and improvement by the 18th century,though initially the credit belonged to technology.
Historically,technology “leads” science in terms of social impact and useful innovations until the late 19th century.
17th century innovations in science and mathematics were important factors in the public identification of the new reason-based natural philosophy with human progress,but progress was a Renaissance idea,built into Renaissance Humanism and a controversial idea well into the 17th century.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 24 Jun - 9:55

Hi everyone! Happy 13th birthday to my past… Again this week,It’s in my philosophy book Science war,I think…
Hershel separated the process of scientific discovery from the process of justification of new knowledge claims,making the latter alone the object of an account of scientific knowledge. By the careful use of experience,Herschel argued that we could understand that scientific knowledge was about the world and how scientific knowledge accumulated,progressively.
August Comte,like Bacon,contributed nothing to scientific knowledge but had a profound influence on 19th century and early 20th century conceptions of knowledge and of a rational society.
Contemporary with Whewell,Comte formulated a developmental theory of mind in which the mind’s maturity was reached when it reasoned based strictly on empirical facts and relationships among facts that have practical consequences. He called this the “positive” stage of humanity and of human reasoning,having left metaphysics behind.
In principle,then,Comte’s conception of scientific knowledge is a precursor of pragmatism and its contingent,probable,and particular conception of knowledge. In fact, Comte repeatedly made the goal of science the discovery of necessary relationships among facts.
I'm sorry if my articles are short these weeks,But I'm not in shape at all and I don't want to write in french anymore...

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 1 Jul - 10:17

Hello everyone!For this week,it’s the continuity of the last one’s… I’m waiting a response of the government about who he thinks am I...It’s incoherent with the past they maybe didn’t call Normand,I had insisted about that since many years but maybe I’ll succeed this time…
I’m fine in my new apartment,it’s the first time in my life then I have my own bathroom,I’m happy but very costly for me…
Mill defended the traditional conception of induction against Whewell’s reconceptualization of it.He argued that the mind add’s nothing to facts when reasoning inductively but only extracts patterns from facts. The object of inductive reasoning,then,is identifying the one correct pattern in a set of data; thus, the object of science is nature,not experience.
Using multiple cross-referenced experiments and inductive methods of data analysis,Mill argued that we could, as Newton said,identify the “true causes” of phenomena and not just construct logically consistent “stories” about data,à la Descartes.
Whewell’s attribution of an active role for mind in reasoning was symptomatic of a trend in 19th century philosophy,as was his claim that reasoning was intrinsically historical. Both claims would be of limited influence for 100 years,then erupt in the post world war II period. The enlightenment identification of reason as the only means by which personal and social well-being could be improved was repeatedly challenged,beginning with Rousseau,and on a broad front.
The Romantics rejected the hegemony of reason in human affairs. Some such as William Blake,depicted it as leading humanity down a disastrous dead-end path. Others,such as the German poet Novalis,depicted the human condition as inevitably tragic,reason notwithstanding.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 8 Jul - 13:40

Hello everyone! One of my friend is in great distress these times and I’d helped another to move on in his life,it’s thenreason why I don’t have time to do many things…
In continuity with last week…
Science,reason,and progress are conflated: Mankind progresses through the application of reason to our understanding of,and action on,the world.
Kant proclaimed an age of “enlightenment”. Thomas Paine’s The Age of Reasonwas a best-seller and very influential. European society was astonishingly receptive to the rise of modern science and it’s not at all clear why.
It’s not clear whether the impact of modern science on 18th century Europe was cause or effect.
The rise of modern science may have caused the spread of secular and materialist values (as Berkeley had feared),or it may have been an expression of the independent,earier emergence of such values in the 16th and 17th centuries?
Of particular interest was the emergence of an aggressive materialistic determinism as a scientific truth.
The cultural impact of scientific knowledge took many forms,some of them subversive of the social status quo,as science and reason became tools for social reform in spite of determinism. One subversive influence was action spurred by the idea that knowledge was power.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 15 Jul - 11:44

Hello everyone! For this week,it’s again in the quest of truth in philosophy and science… and how they’re evolving through the centuries…
Eminent scientists considered scientific theories explanatory if they “covered”the phenomena and made correct predictions. By the late 1860s,we saw,Maxwell had given up on a mechanical model of his electromagnetic field theory,even though its physical reality seemed assured by the startling predictions it made. One of these predictions was that light was an electromagnetic waves of certain frequencies that travel at the same speed as all other electromagnetic waves. A corollary prediction,confirmed in the 1880s by Oliver Lodge and Heinrich Hertz (of whom more below),was that all electromagnetic waves could,like light,be propagated in free space.

Especially in 2 major works.The History of Mechanics and The Analysis Sensations,Mach developed a radically relational theory of what scientists know and how they know it. Mach claimed that space,time,motion,mass,force, and energy were all names of relationships. Like Comte and contra Newton,physics describes relationships.It doesn’t reveal ultimate realities.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 22 Jul - 11:59

This week had been rough to me… I have in my 7th house,2 capricorn,1 libra and 3 taurus in my neighborhood,they’re basically a support but sometimes it’s something to endure… Capricorn particularly but they are useful to me. For this week,I chosed a part in:The Philosophy of mind/John R.Searle.
Alternatives to dualism:Materialism ans its discontents:
This lecture discusses the history of doctrines in the philosophy of mind that have constituted a response to Cartesian dualism. It’s generally assumed that property dualism encounters many of the same difficulties as substance dualism and for that reason isn’t acceptable. That leaves monism with 2 possibilities:idealism and materialism. Idealism was influential up to and through the 19th century,but given the enormous success of the physical sciences, it has not seemed an acceptable option in the middle and later parts of the 20th century.Materialism seems inevitable but unattractive. This lecture is mostly about the recurring difficultiies with materialism.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 29 Jul - 10:09

Hello everyone! This is the last week of the month,the time is very long… I’d learned a lot about history this week. I know now the Shah of Iran and all the history about it… I don’t find him the big loser in the story too… In the philosophy of mid this week…
Methodological behaviorism says we should study behavior as a scientific project in psychology.
Logical behaviorism says that any statement about the mind is equivalent in meaning to a set of statements about behavior. The failure of logical behaviorism: 3 objections can be raised against logical behaviorism.
There appears to be a kind of circularity. Beliefs can only be analyzed presupposing beliefs,for example. Behaviorism leaves out the causal component in the relation of the mental to the physical.
There are counterexamples of the superactor,superspartan variety. We can imagine someone who acts exactly as if he were in pain,without actually being in pain,and someone who can have a pain wihout ever manisfesting that pain in behavior.
The most important objection arises from commonsense.Behaviorism denies what we all know:we all have subjective conscious mental states:and there are quite different from our behavior. The most important objection arises from commonsense.Behaviorism denies what we all know: We all have subjective conscious mental states:and there are quite different from our behavior.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 5 Aug - 9:58

Hello everyone! This week has been hard. I’d learned a lot by listening many documentaries. I have a deep knowledge of Islam which I’d studied a lot and my opinion face to them is always the same,Trudeau is wrong… an idiot… I’d seen what happens in Europe too. My favorites documentaries are on the aliens (ufo),demons,ghosts,natural disasters and man engineering disasters (which are not better than natural one’s). I’d seen all documentaries about North Korea,which is in my opinion the worst man disaster… It’s like the Islam with the arabs but in “Asia version”… Because North Korea is more a cult than a political system.. But both are mixed in one. Kim Jung Un is very similar to Mahomet and the philosophy is a lot similar too. And in their books,the History has been a lot broken in lies and cover up… false motive=false intentionality=bad results… And both are in bad conflicts in their relationships with others. And in both you have big dramas of humans being animals… My favorites series:Ancient Aliens,Forbidden Archeology,Seconds From Disaster,paranormal survivor and paranormal witness…
Philosophy of Mind/Searle:Biological Naturalism as a theory of the Mind. Descartes questions can be answered by taking the mind seriously as a biological phenomenon.
Mental states are caused by and realized in the brain,in the same sense in which digestion is caused by and realized in the stomach and the digestive tract.
Observer-independent and observer-relative features of the world can be distinguished. This is a more important distinction than are the invalid distinctions between mind and matter or machines and nature.
Questions to consider:
1.If behavior is insufficient to ascribe thought to a system,what is the minimum requirement for the ascription of thought?
2.If we define the brain as a “physical system”,is there any reason why we cannot say that machines think?
3.If brains as physical systems have the ability to think,is it possible for other physical systems to have this ability also? What is the necessary feature for a system to have the ability to think?
4.The thesis of biological naturalism is a type of materialist theory.In what way does it differ from the earlier materialist theories?

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 12 Aug - 12:04

Hi! It has been a good week for me this one. I,d learned a lot about bellechasse these last months I, related with the family of the new owner of the house where I grew up in my childhood. It’s a good sign for me. I hope the new owner (a woman) will not be affected by the energy there… But I,m very fine where I am now.
For this week,I chosed:Locke:A guide for the perplexed/Patricia Sheridan.
Locke’s theory of ideas: Locke’s goal in Books I and II is to examine the content of human consciousness and the origin of ideas,but his project isn’t to produce a mere taxonomy.Locke’s intent is to rethink traditional conceptions of knowledge and intellectual accountability.What we see Locke objecting to,time and again,in Book I is the all-too-common tendency people have to accept the truth of traditional principles regarding religion morality,and the natural sciences without paying sufficient attention to the degree of their evidentiality support.
Locke saw a great danger in accepting as true what one takes on authority alone,and sought to turn the attention of philosophy to knowledge itself and the proper methods for discovering truth.
Locke’s argument against innate ideas:
Book I can be read as a kind of ground-clearing for Locke’s project in the subsequent 3 books of the essay.Where Books II and IV deal with aspects of Locke’s positive theory of ideas, Book I concentrates on the view of ideas which Locke presumably considered his main foil,the theory of innate ideas.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 19 Aug - 8:03

It has been a very hard week again this week. It’s a capricorn of my neighborhood but I’m successing on him,alone. It’s always a big challenge with them in my life. I’d made a mandala this week for relaxing,it’s on the link below. For this week,I read some good things and good documentaries,I like them a lot… I prefer that to the TV… In Locke:a guide for the perplexed/Patricia Sheridan:
Innatist thinkers generally believed that the knowledge of God and our moral duties (among other things) resides in the mind from birth. There were stronger and weaker versions of this position in the air in the 17th century. The stronger position can be characterized as the naïve theory of innateteness,according to which there are a number of principles stamped on the mind at birth ,or,as it was commonly expressed,written into the hearts of men. These innate principles typically included the fundamentals of religious belief,mathematical axioms,and a host of commonly held moral propositions.
The naïve position was rejected by a number of people at the time,who proposed a somewhat toned-down version of the innate ideas thesis. This more moderate view doesn’t hold that propositions are actually resident in the mind,but rather that the mind seems predisposed to recognize the truth of certain propositions in the manner of a kind of recollection.
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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 26 Aug - 11:24

Hello gang!The most difficult is past now… I’m hoping so… I had a hard week again this one’s. The capricorn who caused me troubles is out of here and it’s comforting for me. For this week,I’m in the same book. It’s the thinking of Bishop Edward Stillingfleet.
As to the universal and abstract theorems of science,the terms whereof are those reasons of things,which exist no where but only in the mind itself (whose noemata and ideas they are) the measure and rule of truth concerning them can be no foreign on extraneous thing without the mind,but must be native and domestic to it or contained within the mind itself,and therefore can be nothing but its clear and distinct perception. He continues in this vein,explaining that while the senses can perceive individual objects in the world,”abstract universal rationes,reasons,are that higher station of the mind,from whence looking down upon individual things,it hath a commanding view of them,and as it were a priori comprehends or knows them.”
Many thinkers in Locke’s day held some brand of innate ideas theory. But it was commonly believed by naïve and moderate innatists alike that reason was like a light or candle in each and every one of us,containing,in some sense, all the most basic principles of natural and moral philosophy,which were just waiting to be teased out by experience. Reason was seen as a storehouse of knowledge, cognizant of true propositions prior to,and thus independently of,experiential data. Experience could act as a catalyst for bringing this knowledge to consciousness,but it was not seen as its origin.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 2 Sep - 9:00

Hi everyone! Have a good week,it’s the first one’s to my daughter this week,good luck in it and be good it’s very important… your future is now… I’d made a mandala this week again,look in the link below… For this week again in my philosophy book (the same of last week):
“God has stamped a universal character of himself upon the minds of men.”Stillingfeet identifies 2 specific conditions under which a proposition may be considered innate:”1.If it be such as bears the same importance among all person. 2. If it be such as cannot be mistaken for the character of any thing else.” For Stillingfeet,the universality and clarity of certain propositions was evidence that they were,at the very least,familial to human reason. Henry More,who was one of the great intellectuals of his day,held that the mind is,as it were,preprogrammed to recognize true propositions when presented with them;much as one remembers a tune when one hears the first few notes,these ideas are,according to More,triggered or awakened by experience. Propositions he has in mind include geometrical truths,such as “the whole is bigger than the part” or “the 3 angles in a triangle are equal to 2 right ones.”Ralph Cudworth, another important thinker of the 17th century,held that reason has an innate grasp of the principles of natural science. Cudworth argued that empirical observation cannot discover the essence of things in the world, which he took to be the great end of scientific inquiry.
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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 9 Sep - 11:04

Hi everyone! I’m fine this week. I had some trouble with a capricorn in the end of august,now it’s better. The war is at the door with north korea now,but it will be the last one of this regime and I’m happy of that. For this week,it’s philosophy again…
As John Smith,another Cambridge Platon wrote,
“There are some radical principles of knowledge that are so deeply sunk into the souls of men,as that the impression cannot easily be oblitered, though it may be much darkened… it hath well observed,that the common notions of God and virtue impressed upon the souls of men,are more clear and perspicuous than any else. Typically,the proponents of innate ideas appealed to the divine origin of these ideas as a basis for their legitimacy. This succeeded in making such ideas beyond reproach and immune to critical scrutiny.It also had the effect of giving supposedly innate propositions the status of axiomatic principles on which to found metaphysical and moral doctrines.
Locke would have been very familiar with this kind of reasoning,and saw in it the seeds for error and dogmatism of the very worst kind. The doctrine of innate ideas signaled for him a defense of intellectual authoritarianism; as Locke warns,the teacher of absolute truths can “make a man swallow that for innate principles,which may serve to his purpose,who teacheth them.”

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 16 Sep - 9:26

Hello everyone! This week had been better for me… I’m worry about the trouble with the arabs and the north korea problem,in my opinion, it was a bad idea to give an half to US and an half to USSR in the 50’...And the world knows better about the results of a division of a unit these days. But if the war is,it’s because Kim Jung Un is in great distress these days… I’d watched all the documentaries on north korea… The army is maybe big in number but they are in great misery too. For this week,I’m staying with Locke,I like him…
Book II:Locke’s empiricist theory of ideas:
The cornerstone of Locke’s epistemology is his theory of ideas,according to which ideas are the basic content of human consciousness. For Locke,ideas are defined as “whatsoever the mind perceives in it self, or is the immediate object of Perception,Thought,or understanding.” The project of Book II is to describe the nature and origin of ideas. At the outset,Locke sets the stage for this project with the following proposal:”Let us suppose the Mind to be,as we say,white paper, void of all characters,without any ideas:How comes it to be furnished?”As Locke conceives it, the mind is dispositionally capable of thinking, but it cannot do so until it’s furnished with ideas. The mind acquires ideas via 2 experiential routes:sensation or reflection.Sensation,for Locke, is an “Impression on motion,made in some part of the body,as produces some Perception in the understanding.”Once the mind receives an idea from sensation, it begins considering,reasoning, remembering,believing,and all the other mental operations of which it’s capable.
I made a mandala this week,click on the link below and you can see my posts on facebook,twitter and tumblr.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 23 Sep - 9:39

Hi everyone!It has been a good week for me. I’d not be surprised by the facts than some people with higher studies in psychology don’t know Nietzsche and all others… They hadn’t studied philosophy in University degree and they pretend to be instructed. With this idea in ind,the continuity of Locke’s theory…
Ideas and the veil of perception:
The standard interpretation of Locke’s theory of ideas is referred to as the “representational thesis”.According to this view,Locke sees ideas as intermediaries between the extramental world and the conscious perceiving mind. We can think of this as a tripartite account of perception: the object,the mind,and the idea of the object created in the mind. On this reading,Locke thinks of ideas as things caused by some extra-mental object and representing that object to the mind in some way.The idea is a kind of mental picture of the wordly object,and it’s the idea alone of which the perceiver has immediate awareness. Let us consider the experience of a color. The redness of an apple is caused in the mind by real features of some object in the extra-mental world and the effects of these features on our sensory receptors (in this case,eyes). The perceiver has the idea of red as a result of this causal process,but,importantly,the perceiver sees only the red idea and not the object itself that caused the idea in the mind.The idea of red represents the object,but only indirectly.The consequence is that humans never directly perceive the extra-mental world,but are only ever directly aware of the ideas that stand between the conscious self and the world outside the mind. The ideas stand as a kind of veil or curtain prohibiting access to the world as it exists beyond our perceptions of it.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 30 Sep - 11:52

Hi everyone!Sorry if I’m late this week,but I had a lot to do these days… These days,North Korea is my favorite subject of study. It’s very sad what happening in this country,I hope it will end soon.
Just like the same I’d gave to Elly…
http://www.theonion.com/video/onion-explains-totalitarian-state-north-korea-51020
In the same philosophy book this week…
...This view sheds a somewhat different light on the relationship between the perceiver and the perceived than we get from the representational reading. The adverbial account rejects the view that ideas,for Locke,are things that stand in an intermediary relationship between objects and minds. Instead ,ideas are seen as characterizing the manner of human perception rather than standing as the objects of human consciousness.They are adverbial in the sense they represent the act of perception;ideas are perceptions for this account.The intent here is to salvage a more direct account of perceptual awareness from Locke’s theory,thereby saving his view from the unpalatable veil of perception problem. The way this account does so is to read Locke’s ideas as the expression of the way in which extra-mental objects appear to the mind. So, for example, on the representational account of ideas as objects,the idea of a color is the mental representation of some hidden feature or activity of the object.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 7 Oct - 10:14

Hi everyone!This has been good for me! I’m very busy with an old capricorn in my neighborhood thses last months. He’s very good for me,but sometimes,it asks me a lot but it’s my job to take care of him I suppose. But he’s generous with me. For this week,it’s again about Locke and his perception of life. I’m maybe slow but always in progress,”order and progress”…
Ideas of primary qualities:
Locke will not commit himself to the real nature of things external to the mind,but there’s a lot he thinks we can say about objects on the basis of the power they have to produce certain simple ideas in our minds.The idea of power,according to Locke, is the idea of the ability something has to produce ideas in the mind. So,for example,the idea of coldness is taken as a sign of some power, or quality,in that body to produce the idea of coldness in our minds. The problem that arises in Locke’s theory ,as we have seen, is that we have no way of verifying whether our sensory ideas accurately represent real features of material things.Coldness is a good example of the problem. If my hand is very hot prior to my touching something,then the object will feel colder than if my hand is very cold prior to the experience.The object hasn’t changed in this case,but it produces 2 different ideas depending on the conditions surrounding the experience.While we can say that there is a power or quality in that body to produce the idea of coldness in us,we cannot say with any certainty that the idea of coldness represents some real feature of the body itself.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 14 Oct - 12:12

Hi everybody!This week has been good for me. I’m living in a kind of peace now. I have some people to take car in my life and they’re very good for me in return. I believe firmly in aliens now. Nobody can’t persuade me against the idea and in the documentaries then I’d watched on youtube Darwin was wrong because ne missing link here, we had just appeared out of nowhere on this planet by really something from outside this world. I saw many documentaries on forbidden archeology and documentaries on many subjects.It’s my favorite hobby. And if Tesla was certain of this fact,I’m certain too.
In Locke’s philosophy now…
Primary qualities,as Locke defines them, are real qualities (powers) in objects ,and those qualities are just like the ideas we have of them,these ideas “are Resemblances of (bodies),and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves”. Primary qualities include ideas of solidity,extension,figure,and mobility. Locke’s list of primary qualities is consistent with the corpuscularian materialist science that was gaining dominance in Locke’s day. On this view,all matter is composed ultimately of tiny bits of matter,called corpuscules (or what we might now call atoms). The movement of these parts, their cohesion,and their relative fluidity all contribute to be overall appearance of that body and account for its effects on the human senses. Perceptual experience is thus a function of the motion of these particles of matter affecting the senses in certain ways. Specifically,the motion of a body’s material parts transfers motion to our sensory organs via impact and thereby produce sensory ideas in our minds. As Locke explains it, objects produce ideas in us “ manisfestly by impulse,the only way which we can conceive Bodies operate in.”

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 21 Oct - 11:06

Hello everyone!This week,I’ve been sick a little. I’m happy of the results of this month about my HLM then I’ll have for sure very soon!My life will be more easy after that… I had to give some of my time to another to compensate in my daily life. But I’m generally very happy where I am. Again,we stay with Locke and the actual world…
Locke’s metaphysical commitments are never far from the surface. When Locke speaks of primary qualities such as “Bulk,texture,and motion of a body’s insensible parts”,he’s presuming an atomistic account of matter. For Locke,the ideas we have of primary qualities are inseparable from the real object,since they represent the qualities of atoms. Evidence for this isn’t offered in great detail here, but Locke isn’t necessarily slipping something past us by failing to account for his corpuscularian (or atomistic) learnings.

Locke doesn’t want to commit himself to theories regarding what may be beyond our perceptual capacities. However,,this need not inhibit hypotheses that would best explain the relevant phenomena. Locke’s distinction of primary and secondary qualities can be read as an attempt to sort through our ideas of material object on the basis of their explanatory strength.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 28 Oct - 12:12

Hi everyone!It’s the last one’s of the week and it’s not soon enough for me. In continuity with last week but in another section…
Secondary qualities:Secondary qualities also represent powers in objects to produce senstations in us. The ideas we have of secondary qualities,however,don’t resemble intrinsic qualities, however,don’t resemble intrinsic qualities of objects. These include ideas of color,sound, and taste. These ideas are produced in the mind by the motion of material particles acting on the senses, yet the result is apt to mislead us into mistaking appearance for reality. When we have the idea of green produced in us by a leaf,we might well presume that green is a real quality of the object (as when we say,”The leaf is green”).In a sense,it’s real quality in the object, for Locke;however,the real quality in the object, for Locke;however,the real quality isn’t a green color,but a power in the object to produce an idea of green in the mind. The object,the leaf in this case,isn’t,in any intrinsic sense green,but the motions of its material parts can produce that idea in us under the right circumstances. Rubies,on the other hand,have the power,by their different particulate constitution,to produce ideas of red in the perceiver. In this way, Locke challenges the naïve assumption that our sensory impressions diretly reflect the natural world.
Have a nice week everyone!

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 4 Nov - 12:13

Hi everyone! This week had been relax for me,I’d learned many things ,I’d studied the armys of different countries,it was very interesting,China is definitely a major one’s with more than 2 million active military personel. The Russia and US follow in order. In Earth domain,Iran is surprising… It’s because war is in the area since long time. I’d studied too what happened in the history of mankind in 1200 BC and around… This period for over 200 years after will be determinant in history of mankind. It’s very important to know what happened there. It’s the end of an era,the Ancient Égypt,the Micenneans,the birth of Israel,the coming of the people of the sea...Many factors probably volcanos and earthquakes in this region had played a role in all this. Who were the people of the sea?They caused the destruction of all ancient civilizations there. It’s the birth of the monotheist beliefs… The first time where Jews appears in history. I’d studied a lot too of the origins of the Bible,it’s very confusing,but it seems to take origin with David in 1000BC.So many mysteries in this world!In philosophy,we’ll stay with Locke,he’s very good!
Perception and Judgment:
When the mind receives a number of simple ideas simultaneously,it not only relates these ideas,but it makes immediate judgments regarding these relations of ideas. Judgment,for Locke,is a specific kind of assent the mind gives when it takes 2 ideas to be related by some third idea. For example, when we relate red and sweet with the idea of some unifying substance in which they inhere,we form the complex idea of an apple,which we judge to be an exact object having real unity. Judgment is a faculty of the mind that allows us to “fill in” the gaps in our knowledge with probable conjecture.
Judgments can be discarded,on suspended,when our want of information is too great to confidently assent to the relation of ideas we are considering. When we judge ideas to be related,our judgment turns out to be right only if it actually reflects a real connection between those ideas;it’s a false judgment if it turns out we have assented to a relation between what are, in fact unrelated ideas.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 11 Nov - 9:03

Hello everybody!This week has been very good for me. I follow near by what happens about North Korea and I’m happy with the Chinese government who’s on the good side and it’s very important. Nobody in this world should have the right of what Kim Jong Un does to his people. I’ll move on soon for my HLM and I’m very happy of that. But I’m very good where I am. I like very much the city life,one of my friend had moved recently in country side and it was for her a big mistake. I understand the difference between both and I prefer the city life. It’s very better and the mentality of the people here is very different than in country side. For this week…
Locke’s Ethics of belief:
Locke’s work can be seen as not merely descriptive but prescriptive as well: Locke seeks to propose a foundation for taking intellectual responsibility for the judgments we make regarding the truth or falsity of ideas. In fact, Locke’s theory of ideas id predicated on the notion that our complex ideas and the propositions we build from them are the constructions of the human mind. This leaves us with a great deal of intellectual freedom but at the expense of any innate,traditional,or foundational axioms on which to base our systems of belief. Every rational individual has access to the foundations of knowledge on Locke’a account,experiential ideas, and each person is capable of making judgments regarding those ideas in more or less intellectually responsible ways to the end of providing for our neeeds. As we have seen,Locke thinks we can trace the causal origins of our ideas and sort out those which represent reality and those which do so only indirectly.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin Yesterday at 16:36

Hi everyone!I’m sorry if I’m late for this week,but I had a lot to do with many people… I like it because I’m very useful when bad things happen to my neighborhood. It’s my last week in my therapy group but I accomplished my objective,I’d made good friends there. I keep my attention on the world too, North Korea is my favorite subject. My philosophy books are very useful for others too and I’m happy. I’ll have 35 years old in less than a month and I’m good with that.
On these foundations,we can begin to evaluate the relations we draw between our ideas and then alter our judgments accordingly. For Locke,this has more than merely intellectual ramifications. There’s a moral tone to Locke’s discussion that characterizes it as an ethics of belief,the view that we each have a duty to ensure that our beliefs are rational and well-founded not only for the pursuit of knowledge,but for the broader goods of social harmony happiness,trust,and mutual respect. The appeal to tradition and authority didn’t strike Locke as providing sufficiently rigorous standards for determining the truth or falsity of our beliefs. Without a clear comprehension of the origin of ideas and proper grounds for accounting for the beliefs they hold people are liable to be the victims of authority and prejudice in the “posture of blind credulity”. The presumption of innateness has led effectively to an end of critical inquiry,relieving each person of the duty of properly examining the grounds for her beliefs;innateness being once accepted,Locke explains,”it eased the lazy from the pains of search,and stopped the inquiry of the doubtful.”
I’m coming back from my group today,and I’m happy because my objective of why I went there is accomplished with great satisfaction…
Again,I’m sorry if I’m late but when it happens come back a few days later and it will be ok...

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

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