Philosophy in English...different books...

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Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 10 Jun - 8:38

Hello everyone!Again this I’m in another part of the same book...I know,I said it was the last...but I have another one which’s good...I’m sorry if I wasn’t there yesterday because I was outside…
In his essay concerning human understanding,John Locke asked:What can the mind know and how does he know it?
Knowledge is constructed by the mind’s discovery of agreement or disagreement among its ideas,none of which is innate.
Because knowledge is a relationship among ideas,it’s in principle capable of being universal,necessary and certain,but only insofar as it’s internal to the mind. But the simple ideas in the mind,being the effects of primary sensations, come from the world outside the mind.
Thinfs in the world have causal “ produce our primary sensations of things “out there” and of their actions on one another.
Locke argued that careful reflection on experience,separating primary and secondary sensations,in the form of controlled experimentation and logical reasoning,allows us to know that there are objects external to us,possessing distinctive “powers” to act on us and on another in regular,lawful ways.
This knowledge isn’t demonstrative;it cannot be as certain as the knowledge we have of our own existence or of mathematics,but it’s “certain enough” for all our needs.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Fri 16 Jun - 8:55

Hello everyone!For this week,I chosed something in Science war,I think… In my personal life,all is good for me except the government who like to kidding me…We don’t see the world in the same way at all and it’s very frustrating for me. And I don’t have any problem with my view… In my point of view they are in a wrong way,sincerely… and the results are my guarantee…I’m against Trudeau who’s for me an idiot and a shame for this country...and for many others too...And the Qc government isn’t certainly not an example of intelligence.
The Enlightenment vision defines what we mean by modernity. The pursuit of knowledge had taken a new turn in the 17th century. Descartes argued that only in mathematics, because of the deductive character of its reasoning did we actually possess knowledge. Philosophers had yet to achieve anything they knew with certainty in spite of almost 2000 years of trying. The claim to knowledge in religion was controversial and rested on claims of revelation,not reason.
Modern science proposed effective ways of achieving knowledge of nature using reason. By the 18th century,belief in the idea of progress was commonplace,and science and technology were among its principal supports. Knowledge of nature became associated with progress and improvement by the 18th century,though initially the credit belonged to technology.
Historically,technology “leads” science in terms of social impact and useful innovations until the late 19th century.
17th century innovations in science and mathematics were important factors in the public identification of the new reason-based natural philosophy with human progress,but progress was a Renaissance idea,built into Renaissance Humanism and a controversial idea well into the 17th century.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 24 Jun - 9:55

Hi everyone! Happy 13th birthday to my past… Again this week,It’s in my philosophy book Science war,I think…
Hershel separated the process of scientific discovery from the process of justification of new knowledge claims,making the latter alone the object of an account of scientific knowledge. By the careful use of experience,Herschel argued that we could understand that scientific knowledge was about the world and how scientific knowledge accumulated,progressively.
August Comte,like Bacon,contributed nothing to scientific knowledge but had a profound influence on 19th century and early 20th century conceptions of knowledge and of a rational society.
Contemporary with Whewell,Comte formulated a developmental theory of mind in which the mind’s maturity was reached when it reasoned based strictly on empirical facts and relationships among facts that have practical consequences. He called this the “positive” stage of humanity and of human reasoning,having left metaphysics behind.
In principle,then,Comte’s conception of scientific knowledge is a precursor of pragmatism and its contingent,probable,and particular conception of knowledge. In fact, Comte repeatedly made the goal of science the discovery of necessary relationships among facts.
I'm sorry if my articles are short these weeks,But I'm not in shape at all and I don't want to write in french anymore...

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 1 Jul - 10:17

Hello everyone!For this week,it’s the continuity of the last one’s… I’m waiting a response of the government about who he thinks am I...It’s incoherent with the past they maybe didn’t call Normand,I had insisted about that since many years but maybe I’ll succeed this time…
I’m fine in my new apartment,it’s the first time in my life then I have my own bathroom,I’m happy but very costly for me…
Mill defended the traditional conception of induction against Whewell’s reconceptualization of it.He argued that the mind add’s nothing to facts when reasoning inductively but only extracts patterns from facts. The object of inductive reasoning,then,is identifying the one correct pattern in a set of data; thus, the object of science is nature,not experience.
Using multiple cross-referenced experiments and inductive methods of data analysis,Mill argued that we could, as Newton said,identify the “true causes” of phenomena and not just construct logically consistent “stories” about data,à la Descartes.
Whewell’s attribution of an active role for mind in reasoning was symptomatic of a trend in 19th century philosophy,as was his claim that reasoning was intrinsically historical. Both claims would be of limited influence for 100 years,then erupt in the post world war II period. The enlightenment identification of reason as the only means by which personal and social well-being could be improved was repeatedly challenged,beginning with Rousseau,and on a broad front.
The Romantics rejected the hegemony of reason in human affairs. Some such as William Blake,depicted it as leading humanity down a disastrous dead-end path. Others,such as the German poet Novalis,depicted the human condition as inevitably tragic,reason notwithstanding.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 8 Jul - 13:40

Hello everyone! One of my friend is in great distress these times and I’d helped another to move on in his life,it’s thenreason why I don’t have time to do many things…
In continuity with last week…
Science,reason,and progress are conflated: Mankind progresses through the application of reason to our understanding of,and action on,the world.
Kant proclaimed an age of “enlightenment”. Thomas Paine’s The Age of Reasonwas a best-seller and very influential. European society was astonishingly receptive to the rise of modern science and it’s not at all clear why.
It’s not clear whether the impact of modern science on 18th century Europe was cause or effect.
The rise of modern science may have caused the spread of secular and materialist values (as Berkeley had feared),or it may have been an expression of the independent,earier emergence of such values in the 16th and 17th centuries?
Of particular interest was the emergence of an aggressive materialistic determinism as a scientific truth.
The cultural impact of scientific knowledge took many forms,some of them subversive of the social status quo,as science and reason became tools for social reform in spite of determinism. One subversive influence was action spurred by the idea that knowledge was power.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 15 Jul - 11:44

Hello everyone! For this week,it’s again in the quest of truth in philosophy and science… and how they’re evolving through the centuries…
Eminent scientists considered scientific theories explanatory if they “covered”the phenomena and made correct predictions. By the late 1860s,we saw,Maxwell had given up on a mechanical model of his electromagnetic field theory,even though its physical reality seemed assured by the startling predictions it made. One of these predictions was that light was an electromagnetic waves of certain frequencies that travel at the same speed as all other electromagnetic waves. A corollary prediction,confirmed in the 1880s by Oliver Lodge and Heinrich Hertz (of whom more below),was that all electromagnetic waves could,like light,be propagated in free space.

Especially in 2 major works.The History of Mechanics and The Analysis Sensations,Mach developed a radically relational theory of what scientists know and how they know it. Mach claimed that space,time,motion,mass,force, and energy were all names of relationships. Like Comte and contra Newton,physics describes relationships.It doesn’t reveal ultimate realities.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 22 Jul - 11:59

This week had been rough to me… I have in my 7th house,2 capricorn,1 libra and 3 taurus in my neighborhood,they’re basically a support but sometimes it’s something to endure… Capricorn particularly but they are useful to me. For this week,I chosed a part in:The Philosophy of mind/John R.Searle.
Alternatives to dualism:Materialism ans its discontents:
This lecture discusses the history of doctrines in the philosophy of mind that have constituted a response to Cartesian dualism. It’s generally assumed that property dualism encounters many of the same difficulties as substance dualism and for that reason isn’t acceptable. That leaves monism with 2 possibilities:idealism and materialism. Idealism was influential up to and through the 19th century,but given the enormous success of the physical sciences, it has not seemed an acceptable option in the middle and later parts of the 20th century.Materialism seems inevitable but unattractive. This lecture is mostly about the recurring difficultiies with materialism.

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