Philosophy in English...different books...

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Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 10 Jun - 8:38

Hello everyone!Again this I’m in another part of the same book...I know,I said it was the last...but I have another one which’s good...I’m sorry if I wasn’t there yesterday because I was outside…
In his essay concerning human understanding,John Locke asked:What can the mind know and how does he know it?
Knowledge is constructed by the mind’s discovery of agreement or disagreement among its ideas,none of which is innate.
Because knowledge is a relationship among ideas,it’s in principle capable of being universal,necessary and certain,but only insofar as it’s internal to the mind. But the simple ideas in the mind,being the effects of primary sensations, come from the world outside the mind.
Thinfs in the world have causal “ produce our primary sensations of things “out there” and of their actions on one another.
Locke argued that careful reflection on experience,separating primary and secondary sensations,in the form of controlled experimentation and logical reasoning,allows us to know that there are objects external to us,possessing distinctive “powers” to act on us and on another in regular,lawful ways.
This knowledge isn’t demonstrative;it cannot be as certain as the knowledge we have of our own existence or of mathematics,but it’s “certain enough” for all our needs.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Fri 16 Jun - 8:55

Hello everyone!For this week,I chosed something in Science war,I think… In my personal life,all is good for me except the government who like to kidding me…We don’t see the world in the same way at all and it’s very frustrating for me. And I don’t have any problem with my view… In my point of view they are in a wrong way,sincerely… and the results are my guarantee…I’m against Trudeau who’s for me an idiot and a shame for this country...and for many others too...And the Qc government isn’t certainly not an example of intelligence.
The Enlightenment vision defines what we mean by modernity. The pursuit of knowledge had taken a new turn in the 17th century. Descartes argued that only in mathematics, because of the deductive character of its reasoning did we actually possess knowledge. Philosophers had yet to achieve anything they knew with certainty in spite of almost 2000 years of trying. The claim to knowledge in religion was controversial and rested on claims of revelation,not reason.
Modern science proposed effective ways of achieving knowledge of nature using reason. By the 18th century,belief in the idea of progress was commonplace,and science and technology were among its principal supports. Knowledge of nature became associated with progress and improvement by the 18th century,though initially the credit belonged to technology.
Historically,technology “leads” science in terms of social impact and useful innovations until the late 19th century.
17th century innovations in science and mathematics were important factors in the public identification of the new reason-based natural philosophy with human progress,but progress was a Renaissance idea,built into Renaissance Humanism and a controversial idea well into the 17th century.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 24 Jun - 9:55

Hi everyone! Happy 13th birthday to my past… Again this week,It’s in my philosophy book Science war,I think…
Hershel separated the process of scientific discovery from the process of justification of new knowledge claims,making the latter alone the object of an account of scientific knowledge. By the careful use of experience,Herschel argued that we could understand that scientific knowledge was about the world and how scientific knowledge accumulated,progressively.
August Comte,like Bacon,contributed nothing to scientific knowledge but had a profound influence on 19th century and early 20th century conceptions of knowledge and of a rational society.
Contemporary with Whewell,Comte formulated a developmental theory of mind in which the mind’s maturity was reached when it reasoned based strictly on empirical facts and relationships among facts that have practical consequences. He called this the “positive” stage of humanity and of human reasoning,having left metaphysics behind.
In principle,then,Comte’s conception of scientific knowledge is a precursor of pragmatism and its contingent,probable,and particular conception of knowledge. In fact, Comte repeatedly made the goal of science the discovery of necessary relationships among facts.
I'm sorry if my articles are short these weeks,But I'm not in shape at all and I don't want to write in french anymore...

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 1 Jul - 10:17

Hello everyone!For this week,it’s the continuity of the last one’s… I’m waiting a response of the government about who he thinks am I...It’s incoherent with the past they maybe didn’t call Normand,I had insisted about that since many years but maybe I’ll succeed this time…
I’m fine in my new apartment,it’s the first time in my life then I have my own bathroom,I’m happy but very costly for me…
Mill defended the traditional conception of induction against Whewell’s reconceptualization of it.He argued that the mind add’s nothing to facts when reasoning inductively but only extracts patterns from facts. The object of inductive reasoning,then,is identifying the one correct pattern in a set of data; thus, the object of science is nature,not experience.
Using multiple cross-referenced experiments and inductive methods of data analysis,Mill argued that we could, as Newton said,identify the “true causes” of phenomena and not just construct logically consistent “stories” about data,à la Descartes.
Whewell’s attribution of an active role for mind in reasoning was symptomatic of a trend in 19th century philosophy,as was his claim that reasoning was intrinsically historical. Both claims would be of limited influence for 100 years,then erupt in the post world war II period. The enlightenment identification of reason as the only means by which personal and social well-being could be improved was repeatedly challenged,beginning with Rousseau,and on a broad front.
The Romantics rejected the hegemony of reason in human affairs. Some such as William Blake,depicted it as leading humanity down a disastrous dead-end path. Others,such as the German poet Novalis,depicted the human condition as inevitably tragic,reason notwithstanding.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 8 Jul - 13:40

Hello everyone! One of my friend is in great distress these times and I’d helped another to move on in his life,it’s thenreason why I don’t have time to do many things…
In continuity with last week…
Science,reason,and progress are conflated: Mankind progresses through the application of reason to our understanding of,and action on,the world.
Kant proclaimed an age of “enlightenment”. Thomas Paine’s The Age of Reasonwas a best-seller and very influential. European society was astonishingly receptive to the rise of modern science and it’s not at all clear why.
It’s not clear whether the impact of modern science on 18th century Europe was cause or effect.
The rise of modern science may have caused the spread of secular and materialist values (as Berkeley had feared),or it may have been an expression of the independent,earier emergence of such values in the 16th and 17th centuries?
Of particular interest was the emergence of an aggressive materialistic determinism as a scientific truth.
The cultural impact of scientific knowledge took many forms,some of them subversive of the social status quo,as science and reason became tools for social reform in spite of determinism. One subversive influence was action spurred by the idea that knowledge was power.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 15 Jul - 11:44

Hello everyone! For this week,it’s again in the quest of truth in philosophy and science… and how they’re evolving through the centuries…
Eminent scientists considered scientific theories explanatory if they “covered”the phenomena and made correct predictions. By the late 1860s,we saw,Maxwell had given up on a mechanical model of his electromagnetic field theory,even though its physical reality seemed assured by the startling predictions it made. One of these predictions was that light was an electromagnetic waves of certain frequencies that travel at the same speed as all other electromagnetic waves. A corollary prediction,confirmed in the 1880s by Oliver Lodge and Heinrich Hertz (of whom more below),was that all electromagnetic waves could,like light,be propagated in free space.

Especially in 2 major works.The History of Mechanics and The Analysis Sensations,Mach developed a radically relational theory of what scientists know and how they know it. Mach claimed that space,time,motion,mass,force, and energy were all names of relationships. Like Comte and contra Newton,physics describes relationships.It doesn’t reveal ultimate realities.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 22 Jul - 11:59

This week had been rough to me… I have in my 7th house,2 capricorn,1 libra and 3 taurus in my neighborhood,they’re basically a support but sometimes it’s something to endure… Capricorn particularly but they are useful to me. For this week,I chosed a part in:The Philosophy of mind/John R.Searle.
Alternatives to dualism:Materialism ans its discontents:
This lecture discusses the history of doctrines in the philosophy of mind that have constituted a response to Cartesian dualism. It’s generally assumed that property dualism encounters many of the same difficulties as substance dualism and for that reason isn’t acceptable. That leaves monism with 2 possibilities:idealism and materialism. Idealism was influential up to and through the 19th century,but given the enormous success of the physical sciences, it has not seemed an acceptable option in the middle and later parts of the 20th century.Materialism seems inevitable but unattractive. This lecture is mostly about the recurring difficultiies with materialism.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 29 Jul - 10:09

Hello everyone! This is the last week of the month,the time is very long… I’d learned a lot about history this week. I know now the Shah of Iran and all the history about it… I don’t find him the big loser in the story too… In the philosophy of mid this week…
Methodological behaviorism says we should study behavior as a scientific project in psychology.
Logical behaviorism says that any statement about the mind is equivalent in meaning to a set of statements about behavior. The failure of logical behaviorism: 3 objections can be raised against logical behaviorism.
There appears to be a kind of circularity. Beliefs can only be analyzed presupposing beliefs,for example. Behaviorism leaves out the causal component in the relation of the mental to the physical.
There are counterexamples of the superactor,superspartan variety. We can imagine someone who acts exactly as if he were in pain,without actually being in pain,and someone who can have a pain wihout ever manisfesting that pain in behavior.
The most important objection arises from commonsense.Behaviorism denies what we all know:we all have subjective conscious mental states:and there are quite different from our behavior. The most important objection arises from commonsense.Behaviorism denies what we all know: We all have subjective conscious mental states:and there are quite different from our behavior.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 5 Aug - 9:58

Hello everyone! This week has been hard. I’d learned a lot by listening many documentaries. I have a deep knowledge of Islam which I’d studied a lot and my opinion face to them is always the same,Trudeau is wrong… an idiot… I’d seen what happens in Europe too. My favorites documentaries are on the aliens (ufo),demons,ghosts,natural disasters and man engineering disasters (which are not better than natural one’s). I’d seen all documentaries about North Korea,which is in my opinion the worst man disaster… It’s like the Islam with the arabs but in “Asia version”… Because North Korea is more a cult than a political system.. But both are mixed in one. Kim Jung Un is very similar to Mahomet and the philosophy is a lot similar too. And in their books,the History has been a lot broken in lies and cover up… false motive=false intentionality=bad results… And both are in bad conflicts in their relationships with others. And in both you have big dramas of humans being animals… My favorites series:Ancient Aliens,Forbidden Archeology,Seconds From Disaster,paranormal survivor and paranormal witness…
Philosophy of Mind/Searle:Biological Naturalism as a theory of the Mind. Descartes questions can be answered by taking the mind seriously as a biological phenomenon.
Mental states are caused by and realized in the brain,in the same sense in which digestion is caused by and realized in the stomach and the digestive tract.
Observer-independent and observer-relative features of the world can be distinguished. This is a more important distinction than are the invalid distinctions between mind and matter or machines and nature.
Questions to consider:
1.If behavior is insufficient to ascribe thought to a system,what is the minimum requirement for the ascription of thought?
2.If we define the brain as a “physical system”,is there any reason why we cannot say that machines think?
3.If brains as physical systems have the ability to think,is it possible for other physical systems to have this ability also? What is the necessary feature for a system to have the ability to think?
4.The thesis of biological naturalism is a type of materialist theory.In what way does it differ from the earlier materialist theories?

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 12 Aug - 12:04

Hi! It has been a good week for me this one. I,d learned a lot about bellechasse these last months I, related with the family of the new owner of the house where I grew up in my childhood. It’s a good sign for me. I hope the new owner (a woman) will not be affected by the energy there… But I,m very fine where I am now.
For this week,I chosed:Locke:A guide for the perplexed/Patricia Sheridan.
Locke’s theory of ideas: Locke’s goal in Books I and II is to examine the content of human consciousness and the origin of ideas,but his project isn’t to produce a mere taxonomy.Locke’s intent is to rethink traditional conceptions of knowledge and intellectual accountability.What we see Locke objecting to,time and again,in Book I is the all-too-common tendency people have to accept the truth of traditional principles regarding religion morality,and the natural sciences without paying sufficient attention to the degree of their evidentiality support.
Locke saw a great danger in accepting as true what one takes on authority alone,and sought to turn the attention of philosophy to knowledge itself and the proper methods for discovering truth.
Locke’s argument against innate ideas:
Book I can be read as a kind of ground-clearing for Locke’s project in the subsequent 3 books of the essay.Where Books II and IV deal with aspects of Locke’s positive theory of ideas, Book I concentrates on the view of ideas which Locke presumably considered his main foil,the theory of innate ideas.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 19 Aug - 8:03

It has been a very hard week again this week. It’s a capricorn of my neighborhood but I’m successing on him,alone. It’s always a big challenge with them in my life. I’d made a mandala this week for relaxing,it’s on the link below. For this week,I read some good things and good documentaries,I like them a lot… I prefer that to the TV… In Locke:a guide for the perplexed/Patricia Sheridan:
Innatist thinkers generally believed that the knowledge of God and our moral duties (among other things) resides in the mind from birth. There were stronger and weaker versions of this position in the air in the 17th century. The stronger position can be characterized as the naïve theory of innateteness,according to which there are a number of principles stamped on the mind at birth ,or,as it was commonly expressed,written into the hearts of men. These innate principles typically included the fundamentals of religious belief,mathematical axioms,and a host of commonly held moral propositions.
The naïve position was rejected by a number of people at the time,who proposed a somewhat toned-down version of the innate ideas thesis. This more moderate view doesn’t hold that propositions are actually resident in the mind,but rather that the mind seems predisposed to recognize the truth of certain propositions in the manner of a kind of recollection.
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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 26 Aug - 11:24

Hello gang!The most difficult is past now… I’m hoping so… I had a hard week again this one’s. The capricorn who caused me troubles is out of here and it’s comforting for me. For this week,I’m in the same book. It’s the thinking of Bishop Edward Stillingfleet.
As to the universal and abstract theorems of science,the terms whereof are those reasons of things,which exist no where but only in the mind itself (whose noemata and ideas they are) the measure and rule of truth concerning them can be no foreign on extraneous thing without the mind,but must be native and domestic to it or contained within the mind itself,and therefore can be nothing but its clear and distinct perception. He continues in this vein,explaining that while the senses can perceive individual objects in the world,”abstract universal rationes,reasons,are that higher station of the mind,from whence looking down upon individual things,it hath a commanding view of them,and as it were a priori comprehends or knows them.”
Many thinkers in Locke’s day held some brand of innate ideas theory. But it was commonly believed by naïve and moderate innatists alike that reason was like a light or candle in each and every one of us,containing,in some sense, all the most basic principles of natural and moral philosophy,which were just waiting to be teased out by experience. Reason was seen as a storehouse of knowledge, cognizant of true propositions prior to,and thus independently of,experiential data. Experience could act as a catalyst for bringing this knowledge to consciousness,but it was not seen as its origin.

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 2 Sep - 9:00

Hi everyone! Have a good week,it’s the first one’s to my daughter this week,good luck in it and be good it’s very important… your future is now… I’d made a mandala this week again,look in the link below… For this week again in my philosophy book (the same of last week):
“God has stamped a universal character of himself upon the minds of men.”Stillingfeet identifies 2 specific conditions under which a proposition may be considered innate:”1.If it be such as bears the same importance among all person. 2. If it be such as cannot be mistaken for the character of any thing else.” For Stillingfeet,the universality and clarity of certain propositions was evidence that they were,at the very least,familial to human reason. Henry More,who was one of the great intellectuals of his day,held that the mind is,as it were,preprogrammed to recognize true propositions when presented with them;much as one remembers a tune when one hears the first few notes,these ideas are,according to More,triggered or awakened by experience. Propositions he has in mind include geometrical truths,such as “the whole is bigger than the part” or “the 3 angles in a triangle are equal to 2 right ones.”Ralph Cudworth, another important thinker of the 17th century,held that reason has an innate grasp of the principles of natural science. Cudworth argued that empirical observation cannot discover the essence of things in the world, which he took to be the great end of scientific inquiry.
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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 9 Sep - 11:04

Hi everyone! I’m fine this week. I had some trouble with a capricorn in the end of august,now it’s better. The war is at the door with north korea now,but it will be the last one of this regime and I’m happy of that. For this week,it’s philosophy again…
As John Smith,another Cambridge Platon wrote,
“There are some radical principles of knowledge that are so deeply sunk into the souls of men,as that the impression cannot easily be oblitered, though it may be much darkened… it hath well observed,that the common notions of God and virtue impressed upon the souls of men,are more clear and perspicuous than any else. Typically,the proponents of innate ideas appealed to the divine origin of these ideas as a basis for their legitimacy. This succeeded in making such ideas beyond reproach and immune to critical scrutiny.It also had the effect of giving supposedly innate propositions the status of axiomatic principles on which to found metaphysical and moral doctrines.
Locke would have been very familiar with this kind of reasoning,and saw in it the seeds for error and dogmatism of the very worst kind. The doctrine of innate ideas signaled for him a defense of intellectual authoritarianism; as Locke warns,the teacher of absolute truths can “make a man swallow that for innate principles,which may serve to his purpose,who teacheth them.”

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Re: Philosophy in English...different books...

Post  Admin on Sat 16 Sep - 9:26

Hello everyone! This week had been better for me… I’m worry about the trouble with the arabs and the north korea problem,in my opinion, it was a bad idea to give an half to US and an half to USSR in the 50’...And the world knows better about the results of a division of a unit these days. But if the war is,it’s because Kim Jung Un is in great distress these days… I’d watched all the documentaries on north korea… The army is maybe big in number but they are in great misery too. For this week,I’m staying with Locke,I like him…
Book II:Locke’s empiricist theory of ideas:
The cornerstone of Locke’s epistemology is his theory of ideas,according to which ideas are the basic content of human consciousness. For Locke,ideas are defined as “whatsoever the mind perceives in it self, or is the immediate object of Perception,Thought,or understanding.” The project of Book II is to describe the nature and origin of ideas. At the outset,Locke sets the stage for this project with the following proposal:”Let us suppose the Mind to be,as we say,white paper, void of all characters,without any ideas:How comes it to be furnished?”As Locke conceives it, the mind is dispositionally capable of thinking, but it cannot do so until it’s furnished with ideas. The mind acquires ideas via 2 experiential routes:sensation or reflection.Sensation,for Locke, is an “Impression on motion,made in some part of the body,as produces some Perception in the understanding.”Once the mind receives an idea from sensation, it begins considering,reasoning, remembering,believing,and all the other mental operations of which it’s capable.
I made a mandala this week,click on the link below and you can see my posts on facebook,twitter and tumblr.

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