Philosophy in English...different books...

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Post  Admin on Sat 18 May - 8:38

Hi everyone! For this week,I’ll stay simple with my book on International Law,it’s instructive on the subject if not of philosophy.
Recognition of New States:State existence de facto: isn’t a question of international law but depends upon the existence of a sovereign political unity with the attributes which necessarily appertain to it.This de facto existence isn’t dependent upon the will of any other state or states. The entrance of the state into the international statehood,however,depends entirely upon the recognition by those states already within this circle. Whatever advantages membership in this circle may confer,and whatever duties it may impose, don’t fall upon the new state until its existence is generally recognized by the states already within the international circle. These advantages and duties,as between the recognizing and recognized state,immediately follow recognition but don’t necessarily extend to other states than those actually party to the recognition. The basis of this family of nations or international circle which admits other states to membership is historical,resting on the policy of the older European states. These states, through the relations into which they were brought by reason of proximity and intercourse,developed among themselves a system of action in their mutual dealings; and international law in its beginning proposed to set forth what this system was and should be. This family of states couldn’t permit new accessions to its membership unless these new states were properly constituted to assume the mutual relationships, and as to the proper qualifications far admission in each case,the states already within the family claim and exercise the right to judge.

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Post  Admin on Sat 25 May - 9:27

For this week,I’ll talk about insurgents,their definition and their purposes in coming in our countries.
Insurgents are organized bodies of mer who,for public political purposes,are in a state of armed hostility to an established government.
The practice of tacitly admitting insurgent rights has become common when the hostilities have assumed such proportions as to jeopardize the sovereignty of the parent state over the rebelling community,or seriously to interfere with customary foreign intercourse.The general effect of the admission is shown as follows:
1) Insurgent rights cannot be claimed by those bodies seeking other than political ends.
2)Insurgent acts aren’t piratical,as they imply the pursuit of “public as contrasted with private ends.
3)The admission of insurgent rights doesn’t carry the rights of a belligerent,nor admit official recognition of insurgent body.
4) The admission of insurgent rights doesn’t relieve the parent state of its responsibilities for acts committed within its jurisdiction.
5)When insurgents act in a hostile manner toward foreign states,they may be turned over to the parent state,or may be punished by the foreign state.
The circumstances of recognition vary: 1) The most numerous instances are in consequence of division which involves the recognition of the existence of more than one state within the limits which had formerly been under a single jurisdiction. This may be preceded by recognition of the belligerency of a revolted community within the jurisdiction of an existing state,or may be preceded by division of an existing state into 2 or more states. In the first case recognition is a question of national policy, in the second case recognition is usually readily accorded.
2) In modern times a new state has frequently been formed by the union of 2 or more existing states.The recognition in such a case usually follows immediately.

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Post  Admin on Sat 1 Jun - 7:57

The summer time is arrived!And for once,I’m okay with it... I’m very happy in my home and comfortable for the summer!For this week,It will be about the international law again...
Neutralized states:
neutralized states are sovereign only in a qualified degree.While such states have a certain formal equality,their actual competence is limited in regard to the exercise of sovereign powers. This limitation as to neutrality may externally enforced, as in the case of Belgium,Switzerland, Luxembourg,Congo Free state,and till 1900, Samoa. This neutralization may take place for political or philanthropic reasons .The degree of external sovereignty possessed by neutralized states varies. The fact that these states aren’t fully sovereign in the field of international law in no way affects their competence except in respect to matters covered by the conditions of neutralization.Such states are deprived of the right of offensive warfare,and have not therefore that final recourse possessed by fully sovereign states for enforcing their demands.
States under protectors,protectorates, usually,possess all powers not specifically resigned. States fully sovereign may demand 1) that states under protectors afford reasonable protection to the subjects and to the property of subjects of fully sovereign states,and 2) that the protecting state use reasonable measure s to give effect to the protection which it has assumed. Just how much responsibility the degree of protection exercised and assumed. The protectorate and Great Britain over the South African Republic by the agreement of 1884 was of a very moderate form. The right of veto within a certain time any trwaty made with a foreign state,other than the orange free state and native princes,constituted practically the only restriction on the independence of the Republic.

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Post  Admin on Sat 8 Jun - 10:17

Hi everyone! So much happening in our world these days I don’t know where to begin with. The drag kids are a problem in our scoiety these days.I don’t know when it has become legally permissible to let that happen but now it’s not only permissible but encouraged. It’s a sad truth about the left wing then we should consider it a little more. For me, it’s a poison which the goal is the castration of our race. It seems Trudeau wants to replace the canadian people by islamists which is another danger facing our youth these days... I hope nature and maybe aliens will stop this.
To continue in my book about international law...
A state after existence for a period of years may be formally admitted into the family of states.Japan,for centuries a de facto state,was only recently fully admitted to international statehood. Turkey,so long the dread of Europe,was formally received by the Treaty of Paris,1856.
New states may be formed in territory hitherto outside any de facto state jurisdiction, or within regions hitherto considered savage. The examples of this class are mainly Africans,as in the creation of the Congo Free state under the international association of the Congo. The U.S. recognized the Congo free state by acknowledging its flag,April 22,1884. Liberia,originally established by the American colonization society in 1821,as a refugee for negroes recognized as an independent republic.
From another point of view recognition may be individual or collective. Recognition is individual when a state,independently of any other,acknowledges the international statehood of a new state. This was the method of recognition of the U.S..Collective recognition is by the concerted action of several states at the same time. This has taken place most often in the admission of minor states to the European family of states,as in the cases of Greece by the powers at the conference of London,1880;Belgium,1831;Montenegro, Servia and Roumania, at the Congress of Berlin,1878. The Congo free state was acknowledged by the international Congo conference at Berlin,1885.

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Post  Admin on Sat 15 Jun - 10:48

Sincerely,it’s the best years of my life now... I’m happy. One thing sad is that one of my friend is dying from cancer and it’s a big loss for me. But it’s life and I have to do with it and it can be me one day... You can find pictures of her in my facebook. About international Law... I like to learn more everyday,it’s my passion if I can say... I know more about everything than most people do.
A community attempting by armed hostility to free itself from the jurisdiction of the parent state may, under certain conditions,be recognized as a belligerent.
The general conditions prior to recognition are: 1) that the end which the community in revolt seeks shall be political,a mere mob or a party of marauders could have no belligerent rights,2)the hostilities must be of the character of war and must be carried on in accord with the laws of war,3)the proportions of the revolt must be such as to render the issue uncertain and to make its continuance for a considerable time possible,4)the hostilities and general government of the revolting community must be in the hands of a responsible organization. The act constituting recognition of a new state may be formal,as by a declaration, proclamation,treaty,sending and receiving ambassadors,salute of flag,etc,or informal,by implication through the grant of an exequatur to a consul from the new state, or other act which indicates an acknowledgment of international rights and obligations. It should be observed,however,that the appointment,by,or reception within,an existing state,and the aspirant for recognition doesn’t constitute recognition. It may be essential to have relations with a community the statehood of which isn’t established, because of commercial and other matters pertaining to the rights of the citizens of the existing state whose interests,oe who in person may be within the jurisdiction of the unrecognized community. The definite act of recognition is,however, in accord with the decision of the internal authority to which this function is by state law ascribed.

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