Philosophie...

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Sat 2 Nov - 10:29

J'ai trouvé de quoi que je voulais mettre dans mon forum de vraiment pesant et il va bien et en harmonie avec ma philosophie ici écrite...Il s'agit de la définition 8 du livre de Isaac Newton The Mathematical principles of Natural philosophy.
quand on crée un événement,il faut en connaître le sens... pour dire la manière...
The motive quantity of a centripetal force,is the measure of the same,proportional to the motion which it generates in a given time.
Thus the weight is a greater body,less in a less body;and,in the same body,it's greater near to the earth,and less at remoter distances. This sort of quantity is the centripetency,or propension of the whole body towards the centre,or,as I may say,its weight;and it's always known by the quantity of an equal and contrary force just sufficient to hinder the descent of the body.
These quantities of forces,we may,for brevity's sake,call by the names of , motive,accelerative,and absolute forces; and,for distinction's sake,consider them,with respect to the bodies that tend to the centre;to the places of those bodies;and to the centre of force towards which they tend; that is to say, I refer to motive force to the body as an andeavour and propensity of the whole towards a centre ,arising from the propensities of the several parts taken together;the accelerative force to the place of the body,as a certain power of energy diffused from the centre of all places aroud to move the bodies that are in them;and the absolute force to the centre,as endued with some cause,without which those motive forces wouldn't be propagated through the spaces round about;whether that cause ba some central body (such as is the load-stone,in the centre of the magnetic force,or the earth in the centre of the gravitating force),or anything else that doesn't yet appear. For I here design only to give a mathematical notion of those forces,without considering their physical causes and seats. Wherefore the accelerative force will stand in the same relation to the motive,as celerity does the motion. For the quantity of motion arises from the celerity drawn into the same quantity of matter. For the sum of the actions of the accelerative force,upon the several articles of the body,is the motive force of the whole. Hence, it's,that near the surface of the earth,where the accelerative gravity,or force productive of gravity,in all bodies is the same,the motive gravity or the weight is as the body:but if we should ascend to higher regions,where the accelerative gravity is less,the weight would be equally diminished , and would always be as the product of the body,by the accelerative gravity. So in those regions,where the accelerative gravity is diminished into one half,the weight of a body 2 or 3 times less,will be 4 or 6 times less.
selon moi,avant que le québec comprenne ce que ça veut dire,ils seront tous rendus fous avant....hihihi!!!je regardais des vidéos qui se font ailleurs... les fréquences sont très différentes selon là où tu écoutes... pi c'est pas le Qc qui est le plus en avance... comme dans les universités... celles du qc,là où y'a 100 africains qui viennent parfaire leurs études pour se mettre à niveau avec le qc... pi t'as la fuite des cerveaux... pi aucun,without,pas un,de ceux d'universités plus éelevés....qui à lui seul pourrait lui donner de la valeur... mais non!!!
I likewise call attractions and impulses, in the same sense, accelerative,and motive;and use the words attraction,impulse or propensity of any sort towards a centre,promiscuously,and indifferently,one for another;considering those forces not physically, but mathematically:wherefore,the reader isn't to imagine,that by those words,I anywhere take upon me to define the kind,or the manner of any action,the causes or the physical reason there of, or that I attribute forces,in a true and physical sense,to certain centres (which are only mathematical points);when at any time I happen to speak of centres as attracting,or as endued with attractive powers.

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Mon 4 Nov - 17:50

J'ai trouvé encore 2 bons extraits pour cette semaine,c'est tjrs pour appuyer et donner de la crédibilité à ma philosophie... quand je parle de l'ADN,les astres,les cartes du ciel... le lieu,date et heure où tu viens au monde... Pour appuyer mes dire j,ai mis en conjonction dans le même esprit (ma philosophie) Newton and The mismeasure of man of SJ Gould...
Les 3 grandes vérités de Newton...on est dans le domaine de l'absolu là selon lui tjrs...la matière est définie,ce qui est absolu l'est aussi...
I.Absolute,true,and mathematical time,of itself,and from its own nature flows equably without regard to anything external,and by another name's called duration:relative,apparent,and common time,is some sensible and external (whether accurate or unequable) measure of duration by means of motion,which's commonly used instead of true time;such as an hour,a day,a month,a year.
II.Absolute space,in its own nature,without regard to anything external,remains always similar immovable. Relative space is some movable dimension or measure of the absolute spaces;which our senses determine by its position to bodies;and which is vulgary taken for immovable space; such is the dimension of a subterraneous an aeral,or celestial space,determined by its position in respect of the earth. Absolute and relative space,are the same in figure and magnitude;but they don't remain always numerically the same. For if the earth,for instance,moves,a space of our air,which relatively and in respect of the earth remains always the same,will at one time be one part of the absolute space into which the air passes; at another time it will be another part of the same,and so,absolutely understood,it will be perpetually mutable.
III. Place is a part of space which a body takes up, and is according to the space,either absolute or relative. I say, a part of space;not the situation,nor the external surface of the body. For the places of equal solids are always equal;but their superficies,by reason of their dissimilar figures,are often unequal. Positions properly have no quantity,nor are they so much the places themselves as the properties of places. The motion of the whole is the same thing with the sum of the motions of the parts;that's,the translation of the whole,out of its place,is the same thing with the sum of the translations of the parts out of their places;and therefore the place of the whole is the same thing with the sum of the places of the parts,and for that reason,it's internal, and in the whole body.
And in the second book... The mismeasure of man... c'est vrai en toutes choses vous savez....hihihi!!!c'est ça l'évolution...
Preevolutionary styles of scientific racism:monogenism and polygenism:
Preevolutionary justifications for racial ranking proceeded in 2 modes. The "softer" argument,again using inappropriate definitions from modern perspectives,upheld the scriptural unity of all peoples in the single creation of Adam and Eve. This view was called monogenism,or origin from a single source. Human races are a product of degeneration from Eden's perfection.
Races have declined to different degrees, whites least and blacks most. Climate proved most popular as a primary cause for racial distinction. Degenerationists differed on the remediability of modern deficits. Comme ça va bien avec Machaivel ainsi en suite...
Some held that the differences,though developed gradually under the influence of climate,were now fixed and could never be reversed.
Others argued that the fact of gradual development implied reversibility in appropriate environments. Samuel Stanhope Smith,president of the college of new jersey (later princeton),hoped that American blacks,in a climate more suited to Caucasian temperaments,would soon turn white. But other degenerationists felt that improvement in benevolent climes couldn't proceed rapidly enough to have any impact upon human history.
The "harder" argument abandoned scripture as allegorical and held that human races were separate biological species,the descendants of differents Adams. As another form of life,blacks needn't participate in the "equality of man". Proponents of this argument were called "polygenists".

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Fri 8 Nov - 9:01

Pour cette semaine,j'ai choisis encore un extrait de Newton... et 2 définitions dans A Glossary of political theory... Là-dessus je trouve que le qc devrait remettre en cause ses valeurs et les valeurs de celles-ci,leurs sens...Moi je vis au dernier rang des classes sociales.. pi je regarde qui gagne plus,sur le plan économique,c'est le pourquoi de ma réaction le 16 octobre dernier... c'est que je considérais que c'était la meilleure attitude à adopter dans les circonstances car leur analyse de moi et selon leur échelle de valeur est celle-ci.... je parle du 16 octobre au bureau du gouvernenement...à charlesbourg...
Alors je commence avec Newton...
Absolute time,in astronomy,is distinguished from relative,by the equation or correction of the vulgar time. For the natural days are truly unequal,though they're commonly considered as equal, and used for a measure of time;astronomers correct this inequality for their more accurate deducing of the celestial motions. It may be, that there is no such thing as an equable motion where by time may be accurately measured. All motions may be accelerated and retarded,but the true,or equable,progress of absolute time's liable to no change. The duration or perseverance of the existence of things remains the same,whether the motions are swift or slow,or none at all:and therefore it ought to be distinguished from what are only sensible measures there of;and out only sensible measures there of; and out of which equation, for determining the times of a phenomenon , is evinced as well from the experiments of the pendulum clock,as by eclipses of the satellites of Jupiter.
juste avant...pour faire l'échelle de valeurs en question... ce sont des termes de logique mathématiques... les comprendre devrait être utile pour faire l'échelle des valeurs du dit Qc... quand je lis le qc et ses valeurs ces derniers temps... je trouve que mon article devrait être prit en considération dans leurs calculs... savoir que: vector:shows magnitude and direction/scalar: shows direction only/resultant:sum of 2 vectors/magnitude:how much/direction:which way/components:vectors have 2/resolution:process of determining components/projectiles:object shot into the air,have curved path/vertical:up/horizontal:across/trajectory:path of a projectile/range:distance of a projectile/satellite:circles the earth/tangent:opposite/adjacent/sine:opposite/hypotenuse/tail to head:how to dd vectors/any order:how vectors can be added/resolving:breaking a single vector into 2 components/subtract a vector:add the opposite vector.
Maintenant 2 définitions qui se suivent dans le 2e livre..le glossary...
Class: An important category,class is a political as well as economic term. It denotes not simply a person's economic term. it denotes not simply a person's economic power,but what kind of political influence they can exert.
Elitists like Pareto and Mosca argue that every society is governed by a ruling class,by which is meant a minority who are able to perpetuate their domination through superior organisational skills and psychological attributes.
The term is often used to assign people a particular status depending upon their income,but Marxists use the term to denote the relationship a person has to the means of production. A class analysis would then involve say a study of political events in terms of actors who occupy differential positions in relation to the ownership of capital.
The use of the concept of class has been marginalised recently by the idea that class is merely one identity among many,and people can see themselves in ethnic,regional,gender or sexual terms rather than as people who are rich or poor. A challenge would be to define the concept of class so that it underpins these other identities,class would only express itself in daily life through these other identities. This would at least avoid the somewhat mechanistic juxtaposition of class as a separate factor that exists alongside gender,ethnicity,and so on.
Coercion:This involves the use of pressure amounting to a threat of credible force. Coercion isn't the same as force,since it's a threat to use force. On the other hand,this threat has to be credible or coercion cannot be said exist.
The term is sometimes employed to describe social pressures that compel people to work for others or to conform to a moral climate of public opinion. Here is a broad view of coercion that relates to circumstances in which no credible force is threatened. It's better to refer to these kinds of pressures as constraints,and to use the term coercion to refer to the threat of credible force. Coercion cannot exist without force,even though it's not synonymous with it.

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Tue 12 Nov - 14:28

J'ai trouvé des extraits de Machiavel qui à mon avis,le peuple québécois devrait apprendre...pour faire moins de fous à chaque années... pi que ça tente à quekun de servir une patrie de merde comme celle où l'on vit... société qui traite les siens comme du bétail..par Machiavel, ll'italien... vous êtes maudits et allez à la régression de votre race... et le pourquoi la fonction publique dans son sens général n'est point ni aimée ni respectée...comme les cochons pi le système de santé par exemple... comme je le disais à Mario,j'aimerais mieux frotter avec ma brosse à dents les pierres de Angkor Wat que de torcher le qc... ou que ce soit... pourquoi?c'est dans la raison... car ça plus de sens... car je préfère servir ce qui pour moi en vaut la peine et en a l'honneur...ce qui n'est pas le cas de l'osti de qc...
Une observation importante résulte de ce fait:c'est qu'un prince ne peut éviter la mort lorsqu'un homme ferme et endurci dans sa vengeance a résolu de le faire périr;car quiconque méprise sa vie est maître de celles des autres. Mais comme ces dangers sont rares,ils sont,par conséquent,moins à appréhender. Tout ce que le prince peut et doit faire à cet égard,c'est d'être attentif à n'offenser grièvement aucun de ceux qu'Il emploie et qu'il a autour de lui pour son service; attention que n'eut point Caracalla,qui avait fait mourir injustement un frère du centurion par lequel il fut tué,qui le menaçait journellement lui-même, et qui néanmoins le conservait dans sa garde. C'était là sans doute une témérité qui ne pouvait qu'occasionner sa ruine,comme l'événement le prouva.
...
Le prince qui désarmerait ses sujets commencerit à les offenser,en leur montrant qu'il se défie de leur fidélité;et cette défiance,quel qu'en fût l'objet,inspirerait de la haine contre lui. D'ailleurs, ne pouvant pas rester sans armes,il serait forcé de recourir à une milice mercenaire; et je l'ai déjà dit ce que c'est que cette milice,qui,lors même qu'elle serait bonne,ne pourrait jamais être assez considérable pour le défendre contre des ennemis puissants et des sujets irrités. Aussi,comme je l'ai déjà dit,tout prince nouveau dans une principauté nouvelle n'a jamais manqué d'y organiser une force armée. L'histoire en présente de nombreux exemples.
...
Cela pouvait être bon dans le temps où il y avait une sorte d'équilibre en Italie;mais il me semble qu'on ne pourrait plus le conseiller aujourd'hui;car je ne pense pas que les divisions pussent être bonnes à quelque chose. Il me paraît même que, quand l'ennemi approche,les pays divisés sont infailliblement et bientôt perdus;car le parti faible se joindra aux forces extérieures,et l'autre ne pourra plus résister.
...
Le prince qui emploie de pareils moyens décèle sa faiblesse;et un gouvernement fort ne tolérera jamais les divisions:si elles sont de quelque utilité durant la paix, en donnant quelques facilités pour contenir les sujets,dès que la guerre s'allume,elles ne sont que funestes.
...
Aussi,quand la fortune veut agrandir un rpince nouveau,qui a plus besoin qu'un prince héréditaire d'acquérir de la réputation,elle suscite autour de lui une foule d'ennemis contre lesquels elle le pousse,afin de lui fournir l'occasion d'en triompher , et lui donne ainsi l'occasion de s'élever au moyen d'une échelle que ses ennemis uex-mêmes lui fournissent. C'est pourquoi plusieurs personnes ont pensé qu'un prince sage doit, s'il le peut,entretenir avec adresse quelque inimitié pour qu'en la surmontant il accroisse sa propre grandeur.
Les princes, et particulièrement les princes nouveaux,ont éprouvé que les hommes qui,au moment de l'établissement de leur puissance,leur avaient paru suspects,leur étaient plus fidèles et plus utiles que ceux qui d'abord s'étaient montrés dévoués. Pandolfo Petrucci,prince de Sienne,employait de préférence dans son gouvernement ceux que d'abord il avait suspectés.

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Sun 17 Nov - 11:40

Voici mes bons extraits de cette semaine...
In the Glossary of political theory...
Division: A conflict between parties,whether tey are individuals or groups,that cannot be resolved without the use of force.It's not simply that there is a distinction involved:it's that the people or groups cannot change places or empathise with the others position. Hence when divisions occur,states are directly or indirectly involved,since in these circumstances a conflict cannot be addressed through negotiation,arbitration or compromise.
In the Cultural Evolution....
What might this other state variable be? Turchin suggests that another factor that might affect the rise and fall of empires is the social cohesiveness of that empire. The cohesiveness of a social group,he argues,can be measured in terms of the degree to which people identify themselves as membersof that group and consequently the degree to which they're willing to defend their group against other groups. Drawing on an earlier,informal theory of historical dynamics proposed in the 14th century by Arab scholar Ibn Khaldun,often considered to be one of the forefathers of modern sociology ,Turchin proposed the following theory. First, in smallscale societies,cohesiveness increases because collective action is often the key to survival,such as in the case of communal defense against a common enemy or the building of a communal well or bridge. Once cohesiveness has reached a critical point,the society is functionning so well that it begins to expand and successfully invade neighboring societies that are smaller and/or have lower cohesiveness. This is now an empire. However,when the empire grows too large,cohesiveness begins to decline as collective action is no longer necessary for survival. Instead,competition begins to occur within the empire between different elite factions. Eventually,cohesiveness is so low that the empire breaks up or is invaded by new,highly cohesive groups that have emerged in the frontier regions of the empire,where cohesiveness is lowest.This theory is a specific version of a general theory of cultural group selection,proposed by Boyd and Richerson among others,in which cohesive,cooperative groups outcompete less cohesive,less cooperative groups.
In the Selfish gene...
In the beginning was simplicity. It's difficult enough explaining how even a simple universe began. I take it as agreed that it would be even harder to explain the sudden springing up, fully armed,of complex order-life,or a being capable of creating life.Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is satisfying because it shows us a way in which simplicity could change into complexity,how unordered atoms could group themselves into ever more complex patterns until they ended up manufacturing people. Darwin provides a solution, the only feasible one so far suggested,to the deep problem of our existence. I'll try to explain the great theory in a more general way than is customary,beginning with the time before evolution itself began. Darwin's "survival of the fittest" is really a special case of a more general law of survival of the stable.The universe is populated by stable things. A stable thing is a collection of atoms that's permanent enough or common enough to deserve a name. It may be a unique collection of atoms,such as the Matterhorn,that lasts long enough to be worth naming. Or it may be a class of entitie,such as rain drops,that come into existence at a sufficiently high rate to deserve a collective name even if any one of them is short-lived.
Pour finir avec quekchose que j'avais écris sur un autre article... le sagittaire est antimatter,car c'est le seul des 12 à ne pas avoir sa "version" concrète...comme le bélier,les poissons...qui eux sont représentés par des êtres concrets.... Tandis que le sagittaire est un être mythologique... né en Grèce... J'ai vus hier la maison d'été à Sissi de Corfoux en Grèce,c'était vraiment superbe!L'omniprésence d'Achille dans les peintures et les sculptures sont vraiment extraordinaires et je trouve qui lui vont bien...
Pour mes extraits,ben j'ai lus ça cette semaine,pi ça fittait trop bien dans ma philosophie...aimez-vous mes jeux de mots?hihihi!!!

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Tue 19 Nov - 12:03

Pour finir le mois de novembre j'ai choisis des petits bouts de Machiavel et la présentation d'un German que je ne connaissais pas jusqu'à récemment...
C'est dans un livre que M.Philippe aimerait... Kandel/Principles of Neural Science...
Machiavel:
Sur cela,au reste,j'observe qu'un prince ne doit jamais,ainsi que je l'ai déjà dit,s'associer à un autre plus puissant que lui pour en attaquer un 3e,à moins qu'il n'y soit contraint par la nécessité,car la victoire le mettrait à la discrétion de cet autre plus puissant;et les princes doivent,sur toutes choses,éviter de se trouver à la discrétion d'autrui.Les Vénitiens s'associèrent avec la France contre le duc de Milan;et de cette association,qu'ils pouvaient éviter,résulta leur ruine.
...
Un prince doit encore se montrer amateur de toutes les vertus,en récompensant ceux qui les manifestent,et honorer ceux qui se distinguent dans leur profession.Il doit encourager ses sujets,et les mettre à portée d'exercer tranquillement leur industrie,soit dans le commerce,soit dans l'agriculture,soit dans tous les autres genres de travaux auxquels les hommes se livrent;en sorte qu'il n'y en ait aucun qui s'abstienne ou d'améliorer ses possessions,dans la crainte qu'elles ne lui soient enlevées,ou d'entreprendre quelque négoce de peur d'avoir à souffrir des exactions.Il doit faire espérer des récompenses à ceux qui forment de telles entreprises,ainsi qu'à tous ceux qui songent à accroître la richesse et la grandeur de l'État.Il doit de plus,à certaines époques convenables de l'année,amuser le peuple par des fêtes,des spectacles;et,comme tous les citoyens d'un État sont partagés en communautés d'arts ou en tribus,il ne saurait avoir trop d'égards pour ces corporations;il paraîtra quelquefois dans leurs assemblées,et montrera toujours de l'humanité et de la magnificence,sans jamais compromettre néanmoins la majesté de son rang,majesté qui ne doit l'abandonner dans aucune circonstances.
...
Ce n'est pas une chose de peu d'importance pour un prince que le choix de ses ministres,qui sont bons ou mauvais selon qu'il est plus ou moins sage lui-même.Aussi,quand on veut apprécier sa capacité,c'est d'abord par les personnes qui l'entourent que l'on en juge. Si elles sont habiles et fidèles,on présume toujours qu'il est sage lui-même,puisqu'il a su discerner leur habileté et s'assurer de leur fidélité;mais on en pense tout autrement si ces personnes ne sont point telles; et le choix qu'il en a fait ayant dû être sa 1ère opération,l'erreur qu'il y a commise est d'un très fâcheux augure. Tous ceux qui apprenaient que Pandolfo Petrucci,prince de Sienne,avait choisi Antonio da Venafro pour son ministre,jugeaient par là même que Pandolfo était un prince très sage et très éclairé.
On peut distinguer 3 ordres d'esprit,savoir:ceux qui comprennent par eux-mêmes,ceux qui comprennent lorsque d'autres leur démontrent,et ceux enfin qui ne comprennent ni par eux-mêmes, ni par le secours d'autrui. Les 1ers sont les esprits supérieurs,les seconds les bons esprit,les 3es les esprits nuls. Si Pandolfo n'était pas du 1er ordre,certainement il devait être du 2e,et cela suffisait;car un prince qui est en état,sinon d'imaginer,du moins de juger de ce qu'un autre fait et dit de bien et de mal, sait discerner les opérations bonnes ou mauvaises de son ministre,favoriser les unes,réprimer les autres,ne laisser aucune espérance de pouvoir le tromper,et contenir ainsi le ministre lui-même dans son devoir.
Tu manquerais quekchose de ne pas me lire Philippe...
Mon 2e extrait:
Franz Joseph Gall,a German phycisian and neuroanatomist,proposed 3 radical new ideas. First, he advocated that all behavior emanated from the brain.Second,he argued that particular regions of the cerebral cortex controlled specific functions. Gall asserted that the cerebral cortex didn't act as a single organ but was divided into at least 35 organs (others were added later),each corresponding to a specific mental faculty. Even the most abstract of human behaviors,such as generosity,secretiveness,and religiosity were assigned their spot in the brain. Third,Gall proposed that the center for each mental function grew with use,much as a muscle bulks up with exercise. As each center grew,it purportedly caused the overlying skull to bulge,creating a pattern of bumps and ridges on the skull that indicated which brain regions were most developed.
Rather than looking within the brain,Gall sought to establish an anatomical basis for describing character traits by correlating the personality of individuals with the bumps on their skulls. His psychology, based on the distribution of bumps on the outside of the head,became known as phrenology.

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Sat 23 Nov - 8:14

Je suis tombée sur un extrait dans The mismeausre of man/Stephen Jay Gould...
Il cite Agassiz,un de ses personnages de référence dans son livre...un peu comme moi avec lui aussi dorénavant... je ne pouvais pas attendre... c'était trop bon comme citation...
"No man has a right to what he's unfit to use...Let us beware of granting too much to the negro race in the beginning,lest it become necessary to recall violently some of the privileges which they may use to our detriment and their own injury" 10 August 1863
For Agassiz,nothing inspired more fear than the prospect of amalgamation by intermarriage. White strength depends upon separation:"The production of halfbreeds is as much a sin against nature,as incest in a civilized community is a sin against purity of character... Far from presenting to me a natural solution of our difficulties,the idea of amalgamation is most repugnant to my feelings,I hold it to be a perversion of every natural sentiment...No efforts should be spared to check that which is abhorrent to our better nature,and to the progress of a higher civilization and a purer morality."9 August 1863

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Sun 1 Dec - 17:45

Pour cette semaine,j'ai choisis 2 bons extraits le 1er de Machiavel et le second dans le livre the mismeasure of man,où l'auteur cite Agassiz,un personnage intéressant...
Machiavel:
Un prince doit donc toujours prendre conseil,mais il doit le faire quand il veut,et non quand d'autres le veulent;il faut même qu'il ne laisse à personne la hardiesse de lui donner son avis sur quoi que ce soit,à moins qu'il ne le demande;mais il faut aussi qu'il ne soit pas trop réservé dans ses questions,qu'il écoute patiemment la vérité,et que lorsque quelqu'un est retenu,par certains égards,de la lui dire,il en témoigne du déplaisir.
Ceux qui prétendent que tel ou tel prince qui paraît sage ne l'est point effectivement,parce que la sagesse qu'il montre ne vient pas de lui-même,mais des bons conseils qu'il reçoit,avancent une grande erreur;car c'est une règle générale,et qui ne trompe jamais,qu'un prince qui n'est point sage par lui-même ne peut pas être bien conseillé,à moins que le hasard ne l'ait mis entièrement entre les mains de quelque homme très habile,qui seul le maîtrise et le gouverne;auquel cas,du reste,il peut,à la vérité,être bien conduit,mais pour peu de temps,car le conducteur ne tardera pas à s'emparer du pouvoir. Mais hors de là,et lorsqu'il sera obligé d,avoir plusieurs conseillers,le prince qui manque de sagesse les trouvera toujours divisés entre eux,et ne saura point les réunir. Chacun de ces conseillers ne pensera qu'à son intérêt propre,et il ne sera en état ni de les reprendre,ni même de les juger:d'où il s'ensuivra qu'il n'en aura jamais que de mauvais,car ils ne seront point forcés par la nécessité à devenir bons. En un mot,les bons conseils,de quelque part qu'ils viennent,sont le fruit de la sagesse du prince,et cette sagesse n'est point le fruit des bons conseils.
Pourquoi les princes d'Italie ont perdu leus États
Le prince nouveau qui conformera sa conduite à tout ce que nous avons remarqué sera regardé comme ancien,et bientôt même il sera plus sûrement et plus solidement établi que si son pouvoir avait été consacré par le temps. En effet, les actions d'un prince nouveau sont bcp plus examinées que celles d'un prince ancien;et quand elles sont jugées vertueuses,elles lui gagnent et lui attachent bien plus les coeurs que ne pourrait faire l'ancienneté de la race;car les hommes sont bien plus touchés du présent que du passé;et quand leur situation actuelle les satisfait,ils en jouissent sans penser à autre chose;ils sont même très disposés à maintenir et à défendre le prince,pourvu que d'ailleurs il ne se manque point à lui-même.
...
Néanmoins,ne pouvant admettre que notre libre arbitre soit réduit à rien,j'imagine qu'il peut être vrai que la fortune dispose de la moitié de nos actions,mais qu'elle en laisse à peu près l'autre moitié en notre pouvoir. Je la compare à un fleuve impétueux qui,lorsqu'il déborde,inonde les plaines,renverse les arbres et les édifices,enlève les terres d'un côté et les emporte vers un autre: tout fruit devant ses ravages,tout cède à sa faveur;rien n'y peut mettre obstacle.Cependant,et quelque redoutable qu'il soit,les hommes ne laissent pas,lorsque l'orage a cessé,de chercher à pouvoir s'en garantir par des digues,des chaussées et autres travaux;en sorte que,de nouvelles crues survenant,les eaux se trouvent contenues dans un canal,et ne puissent plus se répandre avec autant de liberté et causer d'aussi grands ravages.Il en reste de même de la fortune,qui montre surtout son pouvoir là où aucune résistance n'a été préparée,et porte ses fureurs là où elle sait qu'il n'y a point d'obstacle disposé pour l'arrêter.
...
C'est ici que la justice brille dans tout son jour,car "la guerre est tjrs juste lorsqu'elle est nécessaire,et les armes sont sacrées lorsqu'elles sont l'unique ressource des opprimés."
Mismeasure of Man:
Then,approaching the end of his article,Agasiz abruptly shifts his ground and announces a moral imperative,even though he had explicitly justified his inquiry by casting it as an objective investigation of natural history.
"There are upon earth different races of men,inhabiting different parts of its surface,which have different physical characters;and this fact...presses upon us the obligation to settle the relative rank among these races,the relative value of the characters peculiar to each,in a scientific point of view...As philosophers it's our duty to look it in the face."
As direct evidence for differential,innate value Agassiz ventures no further than the standard set of caucasian cultural stereotypes:
"The indominable,courageous,proud Indian in how very different a light he stands by the side of the submissive,obsequious,imitative negro,or by the side of the tricky,cunning,and cowardly Mongolian! Aren't these facts indications that the different races don't rank upon one level in nature."
Dans Quizlet,une application Google que j'adore...
agility:the ability to accelerate,decelerate,stabilize and change direction quickly,while maintaining proper posture.Agonist.
quickness:the ability to react and change body position with maximum rate of force production,in all planes of motion,from all body positions,during fuctional activities.
Stride rate:the number of strides taken in a given amount of time (or distance).
Stride length:The distance covered with each stride.

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Wed 4 Dec - 14:01

J'ai trouvé des bouts intéressants à ajourter dans ma philosophie qui peut être complexe à lire... le 1er extrait vient de A Glossary of political theory
et le 2e,ce sont des sets que j'étudies sur quizlet...
Patriarchy:A term that initially referred to the power of fathers over sons, but was later extended to embrace male domination in general.When it first appeared,it was linked to the anti-liberal view of hierarchy and the state as institutions that were natural.
Patriarchalism in the 17th century was employed to defend absolutism and the divine right of kings,and challenge the liberal doctrine of the state of nature and the social contract. Sir Robert Filmer (1588-1653) was explicitly attacked by Locke on this score.
The term has been dramatically broadened under feminist scholarship.Patriarchy is seen as male domination in general,over women,children,and the world of nature. Feminists divide over whether patriarchy is inherent in men,or whether it constitutes a set of values that a few women might also adopt and (a few) men might challenge and reject.Is patriarchy a system or structure that people unwittingly adopt,or should we see it as the conscious result of a pursuit of privilege and power?
There is further controversy as to whether patriarchy is necessarily private or whether it can take a public,institutional form. The notion is accompanied by a broad view of the political process,so that male chauvinism in inter-personal relations can be deemed patriarchal in character.The welfare state is sometimes seen as public patriarchy;an institution that pursues discrimminatory policies against women,and the state itself is seen as patriarchal,or merely contingently so. Much hinges on the analysis of violence. if violence is deemed essentially patriarchal in character,then it's difficult as an institution that uses force to settle conflicts of interest.
c'est quelques définitions dans quizlet...cela est bon pour tout système existant...
potential energy:stored energy such as chemical bonds,diffusion energy,electrochemical gradients.
oxidation:loss of electrons and energy.
reduction:gain of electrons and energy.
closed system:no energy or matter enters or leaves system.
open system:energy and matter can enter or leave the system.
les éléments de matière sont la terre et l'eau,l'énergie est dans l'air et le feu...
surroundings:everything outside the system.
gibbs free energy:energy that is available to do work.
do systems tend to states of lower or higher energy?lower.
higher energy state stability:less stable.
ne pas oublier que rien ne se perd et rien ne se crée tout se transforme....
delta G<0:spontaneous,exergonic,release energy,more entropy.
delta G >0:non-spntaneous,endergonic,needs energy,less entropy.
delta G=0:equilibrium
exergonic graph:starts high (le sommet du mont everest),up bump and down.
rate of reaction:amount of product/time.
rate of reaction increases in general if:molecules move/collide more,molecules are more likely to react due to lowered activation energy.
equilibrium in reactions: when rates of a forward reaction and its reverse reaction are the same,each is equally likely to accur.
catalysts:substances that increase the rate of reaction by lowering activation energy and making reactions more likely to occur.
Prendre note que je prendrai p-ê congé pour les fêtes de ce mois-ci... il est donc probable qu'il y ait des articles au début du mois seulement...

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Mon 9 Dec - 12:08

Pour cette semaine,j,ai choisis 2 extraits qui à priori n'ont pas rapport ensemble...mais moi,je trouvais que oui....car ce qui est à l'infiniment petit fait le constituent del'infiniment grand... ce sont des proverbes que j'a pris dans le dictionnaire pour ça.... pi Case Files Physiology,c'est un livre de médecine dont la philosophie tend vers la mienne bcp... Dans l'un de mes proverbes...moi,en lisant cela...c'est pour ça que je préfère vivre seule dans mes livres qu'à l'extérieur... pi qe je préfère la compagnie de ceux-ci à mon entouge concret... le proverbe est:Hitch your wagon to a star...
lequel sera le 1er...la medecine tiens!
What's the likely cellular response to a certain change in environment?
The study of physiology must be approached on different levels. The macroscopic as well as the microscopic microscopic responses are important. When a change in the environment occurs (a stressor),individual cells adapt so that the organ adjusts,and ultimately the entire organism adapts.For instance,during an overnight fast,when serum glucose levels fall,leading to hypoglycemia,the body adapts.In the short term,the effects of insulin and glucagon or several key regulatory reactions in intermediary metabolism are directly opposed.During the fasting state,insulin levels fall,and glucagon levels rise;these hormones act on glycogen synthesis or breakdown.Net production or breakdown of glycogen is dependent on the relative rates of the 2 reactions. These facts illustrate the hormonal responses.
What graphic data best depict the physiologic principle?
... For instance,the brain has a well-developed autoregulatory capacity to maintain a constant cerebral blood flow despite the fact that the systemic blood pressure is variable. In other words,with hypotension,the cerebral vessels dilate to allow for brain perfusion, whereas with hypertension,the cerebral vessels constrict. Of course,there are limits to this adaptation at the extremes of blood pressures.
...
The number and types of proteins differ from one cell type to another,and in polarized cells such as those found in epithelia,proteins in the basolateral celle membrane differ from those in the apical membrane.These membrane-bound proteins serve many functions,including the transport of molecules, especially those which are water soluble,across the celle membrane. Transport across membranes mainly occurs through diffusion and active transport. Diffusion,in turn, can be by simple diffusion,restricted diffusion,and/or facilitated diffusion. Each of these processes is described below. Many molecules move across membranes as a result of a difference in the concentration of the molecules inside and outside the cell. Such movement is called diffusion. The force inducing the net diffusion is provided by the molecular movement and greater repulsion of the molecules in the more concentrated solution.
Dictionary of proverbs:
History repeats itself:Similar events tend to recur in different periods of history,for example, when rulers or governments fail to learn from the mistakes of those who have gone before;also used when some more trivial or personal incident recurs:"That age has passed away for will not bear mimicry". (George Eliot's,1858),but the sentiment it expresses s of ancient origin,occuring in the writings of the greek historian Thucydides (5th century BC). In 1852,in the 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte,Karl Marx wrote,"Hegel says somewhere that all great events and personalities in world history reappear in one fashion or another. He forgot to add:"the first time as tragedy,the second as farce."
Hitch your wagon to a star: c'est le bon côté d'être partie de mon milieu natal en passant...
You must be ambitious,and aim to achieve the highest possible goal;also used as advice to cultivate the acquaintance of powerful,successful,or influential people who can help to advance your interests.Is one of the unofficial mottoes of the college,which has a reputation for encouraging students of all abilities to fulfill their potential (Ralph Waldo,1870).

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Mon 16 Dec - 11:51

It will be the last for this month,I think so... This week,an extract of Cultural evolution with A glossary of political theory...
Cultural Evolution:Use it or lose it:
A final study exploned rates of linguistic change at the level of individual words,rather than entire languages. Linguists have long known that different words appear to change at different rates. Some words are likely to change in their form or meaning often,whereas other words are very unlikely to change.These rates of change translate into similarities and differences between languages,because words that seldom change tend to be shared across many related languages. For example,the English word "water",the German word "wasser",the Swedish word "vatten",and the Gothic word "wato" ressemble one another because this word has changed little since English,German,Swedish,Gothic all shared a common ancestor. Words that change more rapidly,however,are unlikely to be shared across languages because they have changed since those languages split. For example,the English word "tail" ,the German man word "schanz",and the French word "queue" all refer to the same thing but have undergone considerable change since these languages shared a common ancestor. What causes these different rates of change?
Mark Pagel,Quentin Atkinson,and Andrew Meade proposed that a major factor is the frequency with which words are used in everyday speech. Words that are used often,such as "water",are less likely to change than words that are rarely used. They tested this hypothesis by first estimating the rate of change of 200 words meanings across 87 Indo-European languages. These rates ranged from very slowly changing words,such as "one","two",or "night",which changed 0-1 times during the roughly 10 000 year history of the Indo-European language family, to very rapidly cahnging words such as "dirty","turn",or "guts",which changed up to 9 times in the same period. Pagel then obtained word use frequencies for English,Spanish,Russian,and Greek from samples of magazines,newspapers ,and books,as well as transcriptions of spoken language. As predicted,they found that the more often a word is used ,the less likely it,s to change.Remarkably,around 50% of the variation in rates of word change can be explained by usage frequency. Pagel suggest 2 explanations for this strong relationship. First, commonly used words may be less vulnarable to mutation due to errors in recal. If you use a word every day,you're most likely to remember what it means and how to say and spell it than words that you seldom use. Second, commonly used words might be maintained due to conformity. Hearing lots of people frequently using a word in a particular way would encourage conformity to that common way of using,saying,or spelling it. Less frequently used words would be less subject to conformist pressure,because by definition they are rare.Here we can see,then,how quantitative phylogenetic mehods are beginning to go beyond the description of macroevolutionary patterns (treeness or rates of change) and toward an exploration of the microevolutionary mechanisms that underlie,and thus explain,those patterns (conformity).
A glossary of political theory:
pragmatism:holds that practice rather than cognition is the proper guide to understanding concepts such as meaning,truth,reason,and values.
Charles Peirce's writings are the origin of pragmatism as an approach to philosophical and ethical issues. In the late 1800's,Peirce argued that the meaning of words should be determined by the practical consequences of their application and use. Thus,the practical effect of the use of a word,as measured by our experience of the world,determined its meaning.The full meaning of a word would be a catalogue of all its effects,a word that produced no effects would be meaningless.
Peirce confined his use of the term pragmatism to his theory of meaning. However,others, most notably William James and John Dewey, adopted its use and applied it in a much broader context. In general,this trio of US philosophers aimed to articulate a philosophical approach that was compatible with a correspondence theory of truth. Moreover,Russell pointed out that useful beliefs could also be false and so undermined the conceptual connection pragmatists attempted to draw between usefulness and truth.
Although the specific account of truth pragmatists offered wasn't widely adopted,the general spirit of the pragmatists approach to conceptual questions had a very large influence on the development of US philosophy.
(we can see here Libra sign in the US philosophy...)

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Thu 2 Jan - 8:50

Rebonjour à tous... Bonne Année... J'ai choisis 2 extraits pour commencer ce mois-ci...
1-Physics/An illustrated guide to science
2-The path of philosophy:truth,wonder and distress
J'ai aussi lus quekchose d'intéressant sur le Dr.Morton dans Mismeasure of man mais comme il ne fit pas avec le reste pour aujourd'hui,je le garde pour plus tard...mais en bref,il parle avec l'histoire...Cet homme avait une collection de 800 crânes humains dans sa maison,un des pionniers dans l'étude des races et des cerveaux...Ce qu'il dit me donne raison dans ma philosophie,même que je ne fais que l'approfondir... Comme par exemple,les 1ers pharaons noirs dans l'ancient empire égyptien,qui a été le symbole de départ du déclin de l'empire égyptien de l'époque...quand on regarde l'empire américain aujourd'hui... mais ça j'y reviendrai plus tard...
1-Exposure:The document to be cpied is illuminated.Light reflected by the document is focused and reflected by a mirror onto the receptor plate. Light reflected from white areas of the document falls on the receptor plate. Areasof the coating receiving light release electrons,neutralizong the positive charge carried. Dark areas of the document (text or illustration) don't reflect light. No light from these areas is received by the receptor plate so those parts of the receptor plate remain positively charged. An image of the document composed of positive charge is formed.
Earthing static charge:Static electricity may result from the movement of fluidized solids,liquids or gases through or over a material. Precautions must be taken to prevent ESD where the generation of sparks could result in fines and/or explosions.In manufacturing processes involving transferring fluidized solids,such as flour,chocolate powder etc. pipes must be earthed.The hoses used to transfer gas and diesel into vehicles in petrol stations are made of a special form of conducting rubber.The charge which builds upon the surfaceof aircraft during flight is discharged to earth on landing.
2-Likewise,time is something that we never empirically observe;however,to be aware of our inner world of representation we must think thoughts in temporal order,one after the other. If our minds didn't impose this sort of sequential ordering on our representation ,then everything would appear to us to occur all at once. Furthermore,it's only because of the ability to organize representations according to a "time sequence" that we're able to become aware of our own inner state of consciousness.The power to think things in sequence attunes us to the world of inner thought,which's a world that we never empirically observe but only experience intuitively during the temporal process that's thinking.
Kant's analysis of the intuitions of space and time explains how it's that the pure sciences of geometry and mathematics are possible. A pure science is a science that's completely a priori and not based on empirical observation.According to Hume's metaphysical system,pure sciences aren't possible,because all ideas must be traced back to sensory impressions to be meaningful.Kant,however,claims that our knowledge of geometry is completely based on our inborn intuition of spatial relationships as they appear ready-made in the mind. Likewise with mathematics.Pure mathematics (voir mon articles sur les arabes et les mathematics) is possible as a science because we are endowed with an inborn intuition of time,which makes possible the temporal ordering of particulars,one after the other,enabling us to count,as in arithmetic. We needn't observe anything at all to learn these sciences;we ae already hardwired for them. Furthermore,and contrary to Hume,Kant asserts that these pure sciencesare informative. Through their productive sysnthesis, the a priori intuitions give us new information,and not just the completely empty formalism that Hume had claimed was the earmark of any analytic system.

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Tue 7 Jan - 12:54

Pour cette semaine,j'ai choisis 2 bons extraits,j'ai tellement vus l'italien dans l'extrait of The selfish gene... le 2e extrait vient de The path of philosophy...que j'ai retenus aussi...à priori ils ne vont pas ensemble,mais moi,je trouve que oui... et j'y voyais un sens profond avec moi-même...
The real-life mechanics of this mixing are fairly well understood.During the manufacture of a sperm (or eggs),bits of each paternal chromosome physically detach themselves and change places with exactly corresponding bits of maternal chromosome. (Remember that we are talking about chromosomes that came originally from the parents of the individual making the sperm,from the paternal grandparents of the child who's eventually conceived by the sperm).
The process of swapping bits of chromosome is called crossing over. It's very important for the whole argument of this book. It means that if you got out your microscpe and looked at the chromosomes in one of your own sperms (or eggs if you are female) it would be a waste of time trying to identify chromosomes that originally came from your mother.(This is in marked cntrast to the case of ordinary body cells).Any one chromosome in a sperm would be a patchwork,a mosaic of maternal genes and patternal genes. The metaphor of the page for the gene starts to break down here. In a loose-leaf binder a whole page may be inserted,removed or exchanged,but not a fraction of a page.
But the gene complex is just a long string of nucleotide letters,not divided into discrete pages in an obvious way at all. To be sure,there are special symbols fo end of protein chain message and start of protein chain message written in the same 4-letter alphabet as the protein messages themselves.
In between these 2 punctuation marks are the coded instructions for making one protein. If we wish,we can define a single gene as a sequence of nucleotide letters lying between a start and an end symbol,and coding for one protein chain.
The path of philosophy...
But time is a force that also makes us mindful that there is a point when we will no longer "be-there",and when we'll die. Thus,in addition to care and time,conscious human life is constituted by an awareness of death. We are "beings-toward-death".No other creatures,according to Heidegger,have this unique quality as a part of their existence. Certainly,other sorts of organisms in the world "expire",but none of them "dies" in the sense of anticipating and feeling anxious about their own impending mortality. In this,we discover the initially disturbing fact that there will be a time when we will cease to exist. Thus,ironically,part of what makes Dasein unique is its awareness of its potential to no longer be-there. Coming to grips with this fact is difficult for many people,and so they suppress their thoughts about this inevitably and try to forget about death. Yet to suppress this awareness is a mistake that leads down the path of an inauthentic and alienated existence,according to Heidegger. First of all,because "being-toward-death" is an essential part of our very essence,ignoring death is to ignore part of who we are.To suppress an awareness of death is to try to become like a nonhuman "thing",an object that will never die.
It's deep hein Father?hihi!

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Sun 19 Jan - 16:25

je voulais annoncer ma prochaine promotion à l'aide sociale...que j'ai obtenu par ma philosophie... Je ne sais pas si je pourrai en faire un autre article d'ici février car je serai occupée... mais j'écrirai quand-même régulièrement...
Cette semaine j'ai choisis une définition dans (1) The encyclopedia of political thought et 2 définitions dans (2)the dictionary of philosophy...
1)Checks and balances:the theory that government tyranny is prevented by dividing social and political power through distinct,separate branches or offices of state. The idea is that by distributing political functions among different institutions of society and government,freedom and justice are preserved and maintained. No one person or group can hold all power. This idea of separating and spreading out power to promote justice appears in the writings of Frenchman Montesquieu,English writers bolingbroke and blackstone,and American founder James Madison. In Britain,the division of state into monarch,House of Lords,House of Commons is seen as accomplishing checks and balances, each institution of government limiting,or checking, the power of the others. In the US constitution,the division of the national or federal government into executive (president),legislative (congress), and judicial (courts) branches achieves the same purpose of widely distributing authority and protecting the people from arbitrary or dictatorial rule. Also,the US separation of power between centralized and decentralized governments (national vs state) is also seen as a check on absolutist political power.The origin of this idea is the political thought of Aristotle and his idea that the most stable regime or state is a "mixed" form of government with the rule of one (king),the rule of a few (aristocracy),and rule of the many (democracy) is combined in one state, balancing social interests. In James Madison's US constitutional thought,this derives also from his Calvinist Christian religion,which holds that all humans are selfish and sinful and will use political power to control and oppress others,so state authority must be divided to ensure social peace,justice,and stability.
2)Phenomenalism: Literally,a theory based on appearances.Earlier phenomenalists analysed physical objects in terms of actual and possible sensations (Mill treated matter as a permanent possibility of sensation). More recently phenomenalism has taken a linguistic form. Its main claim has been that sentences about physical objects can be analysed without residue into sentences about sense data,which Moore and Russell distinguish from sensations.
Its point,in both versions,is that we can only know appearances but needn't postulate unknowable objects lurking behind them,because belief or talk about such objects is really only a disguised form of belief or talk about the appearances themselves. The phenomenalist goal of providing detailed translations of statements about physical objects,vigorously pursued until just after the Second World War,is now widely regarded as unattainable,even in principle. Like subjective idealism,from which perhaps it developed,phenomenalism makes appearances central. Subjective idealism says physical objects are unreal. Phenomenalism says they're real, but aren't what they seem,they are appearances,actual or possible.Berkeley is hard to classify. Though usually called a subjective idealist,he held that physical objects were real but were ideas and not material objects.Primarily phenomenalism is a doctrine about physical objects.More broadly,any view can be called phenomenalist which uses logical constructions.
Recursive:Said of a procedure which can be applied to a starting point to get a certain result,and then re-applied to that result to get a further result,and so on. Adding one is a recursive procedure for generating the natural numbers from zero. Recursion theory is a branch of mathematical logic studying functions definable by such procedures. A set is recursively enumerable if there is a procedure for generating its members (not necessarily in any given order). If both a set and its complement (the set containing just those items in the relevant domain that aren't members of the original set) are recursively enumerable then the set itself is called recursive. In that case there is a decision procedure for whether candidates for membership are or aren't members: since there is a process for generating both members and non-members,we wait to see in which list the candidate item appears. With a merely recursively enumerable procedure we can prove that something is a member,if it's,but cannot prove it's not a member,if it's not. The predicate calculus,for instance (the set of its theorems),is recursively enumerable but not recursive.

Laval,j'ai pensé à toi quand j'ai été promus (récemment) ça m'a fait pense à ta promotion de jadis...

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Thu 23 Jan - 18:20

Jevais vous parler de mon senti avec ma nouvelle promotion...je travaille un peu dans un organisme près de chez-moi... moi,je suis à la cantine,derrière le comptoir... il y a 9 stagiaires venues de quelques cégeps de québec... elles ont dans le début 20aine... chacune... pi je les regardais ces derniers jours... les gens qui vont manger là sont pauvres $$,souvent atteints de déficience mentale ou ben des problèmes de séquelles au cerveau... des schizo... des vieux pouilleux sales... pi je regardais les stagiaires,nombreuses pour la clientèle... pi m'est venu l'image du temps où j'étais danseuse...j'aurais été la barmaid dans la situation...les stagiaires étaient les danseuses et les vieux sales déficients leurs clients...pi c'était ça concrètement aussi... c'était ça... pi là je me suis dis,ben voilà encore une belle illustration qu'il est meilleur pour l'évolution de l'humanité,une danseuse avec un sicilien ou avec un ingénieur de londres ou avec un chirurgien... dans un bar de danseuses...que les cégeps québécois qui envoient comme des sauveurs des jeunes filles dans le début de l'âge adulte jaser pendant des après-midi complets avec des vieux ratés... et ce sous le prétexte spécieux de les instruire... car elles sont censées d'y apprendre quoi au juste?tu vois,danseuse ça paraît mal sur un CV,mais les stagiaires des cégeps,ça c'est beau sur un CV... de là on voit la régression de la race québécoise dans sa race et dans son peuple...
j'ai choisis de mixer ça avec le livre que je suis en train de lire...un de ceux... Weinreb Lloyd/Legal reason/the use of analogy in legal argument:quoi de mieux que le droit américain dans toute sa splendeur pour nous faire évoluer...
Analogical legal reasoning :The use of analogies in the cases;is stongly at odds with accounts of analogical reasoning that treat it,one way or another;as suspect:either a flawed and inadequate (even if somehow useful) substitute for the real thing or a preliminary and ultimately disposable stimulus to a sound argument,which contributes nothing to the argument's validity. In all of the cases ,the court relied on analogical reasoning much more forcefully than that,as an integral part of the argument itself.Much of the discussion in the opinions is deployed to vindicate the court's reliance on one analogy on which the majority relies,and they offer an alternative analogy that seems to them more persuasive. Far from analogies serving merely to illustrate or underscore an instrumental argument,such arguments from prior cases are used to explain why the analogy is a good one,and the analogy in turn supports reliance on those instrumental arguments. If the court expresses a general principle that expands on an analogy ("Broadcasters perform;views don't perform,"Privacy protects people,not places"),on its own principle is too broad to express the court's holding and requires reference to the analogy to ascertain its true scope.The direction of thought is from the analogy to the principle,rather than the other way aroud.
.... dans le même chapite,mais quelques pages plus loins...
In a matter of very great importance,one might insist on understanding how a soluion works and formulating a rule (which might be a good deal broader than the particular problem,requires) from which the solution follows deductively. But for ordinary affairs,the analogy itself is enough.Practical analogical reasoning allows a person to take considered action and to achieve his purposes over a vastly larger range than would otherwise be possible. Without the capacity to reason in this way and to base one's actions on the outcome,a person would be effectively immomilized,except when the similarity between a present problem and past experience is so great that they are for pratical purposes the same.

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Tue 28 Jan - 8:31

J'ai choisis un seul extrait de:Encyclopedia of psychology and religion:
We face the problem of continuing horizontal splitting of psychology into cognitive,behavioral,neurological,abnormal,and the like,let alone within tradionally recognized Freudian,post-Freudian,Jungian,and post-Jungian psychologies.We suffer an over-willingness to medicate,due in part to this horizontal splitting.Perhaps in certain instances whereby the working through complex psychological issues in such a climate of overstimulation and rapidly advancing technology,medicines aren't only useful but necessary;however they aren't the panacea the consuming public is proffered.The medicines don't help us arrive at the core or root of the problem.In all this over- and understimulation (or its deadening/numbing) there seems to be an eradication of time for reverie,reflection,meaning-making,and myth building required to make the journey toward wholeness. It would seem that the hearty endorsements of insurance companies to use more drugs than long-term "talking cure" therapy are only prostheses for amputated souls,and there is very little hope for castrated psyches,if this indeed is the impetus of meaning intended by Sheldon.
Perhaps what's called for is a reconciliation of the differential aspect of the promethean and the regenerative aspect of the epimethean. In this way,one progresses away from dying at the back of the brain (the comfort zone of merely knowing about) toward the aesthetic of becoming being. It's psychologically legitimate to accept a criticism of psychology as a negative of the negative in order to present a true positive,not unlike the Hegelian Aufhebung,but mere distinction between horizontal splitting of the field and its caricature in public and private practice leads to nothing more or less than further non-observance and repression of psychic phenomena. Even if it's perhaps good to put into practice the idea maintained in the apocryphal book of the Old Testament known as Ecclesiasticus (Wisdom of ben Sirach) that leisure is necessary for the development and praxis of Wisdom,we do well,as Jesus ben Sirach does ,neither to discount non dismiss and marginalize those for whom dying at the back of the brain is in fact their rightful function and place in life.
The animectomy complex presupposes that we no longer throw our hat in the ring with the notion that the gods have become our diseases.If these gods are in fact no longer absconditus but absentia,what happens to the voice of the symptom? Is it forever cast heroically into the darkness where there is wailing and gnashing of teeth,or have we simply lost the ability to deal with the amputation of soul from a vertical perspective? In other words,without Eros there is no Psyche.Without symptom there is no divisibility.Without divisibility we suffer from the dying back of the brain.
So we need the courage to realize the unavoidable necessity of the death to be died by our frame of mind.It's this that mellows us so that rebirth of the aesthetic panel might occur.

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Mon 3 Feb - 7:58

Pour cette semaine j'ai choisis 2 définitions de:A Glossary of political theory:
Je trouvais que les mots choisis sont appropriés et fit bien avec ma philosophie globale...
Interests:derive from an individual or group's commitment to a particular conception of their well-being.
the concept is a modern one.Interests may conflict without there being any obvious answer as to which is "right or wrong",and hence the notion assumes that absolutist standards of morality linked to theology have crumbled.
Is there a conflict between what a person prefers and what's in their interest?It can be argued that the tension between preferences and interests arises in situations in which people are deprived of information as to the consequences of their action.As long as further inputs of information cause a person to alter their preferences,then it can be argued that the tension between interests and preferences is compatible and democratic norms. However,when further inputs of information cease to alter a person's preferences,it has to be conceded that a person is acting in accordance with their interests.
However,it doesn't follow that an individual interest automatically harmonies with the common interests of society. A conflict between individual and common interests suggests that the action of an individual,wittingly or unwittingly,harms the interests of large numbers of other individuals.
In this case,an action against the offending individual is likely,either in terms of force or social pressure.Non-smokers,for example,may insist that even though an individual wishes to harm their own health,it isn't acceptable that they should smoke in a way that harms the health of others.
Conflicts of interest are inevitable in a society,and the notion of "common interests" should not be taken to imply an absence of conflict,but refers rather to the kind of conflict that allows for disputes to be settled without the use of force.
Justice:isn't simply goodness or virtue:it involves giving every person their due.Thus if a person is "justly" punished,then they have to be found guilty of wrongdoing through transparent and acceptable procedures;these penalties should be uniform,and the punishment must be deemed to fit the crime. The problem with this punitive notion of justice is that it's hard therefore to see how such punisments will resolve conflicts of interest.
Justice,it could be argued,implies development,so that the question of how the individual should be given his or her due depends upon how they may best be developed in a particular context.
Pre-modern notions of justice saw the market itself as problematic and argued the case for a "just price";an exchange tat took acoount of social position of those party to the exchange. The notion returns in the concept of "social justice",a concern that the distribution of resources must be fair. Here supporters of "social justice" divide as to whether the criterion for disribution is based upon merit and desert, or upon need. Need must be defined in a way that takes account of biological and developmental needs. As for merit and desert,they are valuable criteria if taken seriously.Can it be said that a person who inherits wealth deserves it,even though it's merely their good luck that they were born into a particular family?
Those who see the market as central as a mechanism of distribution reject the whole notion of "social justice".But it could well be argued that increasingly inequality is destructive of social relationships,so that the just society must pay attention to the deliberate distribution of resources.
pi juste la 1ère phrase de la définition de leadership...
can only arise when there are followers...

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Fri 7 Feb - 10:01

J'ai choisis 2 courts extraits d'un même livre qui lui aussi les pend en référence...
Weinreb Lloyd/Legal reason the use of analogy in legal argument
Surely there's nothing more basic to thought and language than our sense of similarity;our sorting of things into kinds. The usual general term,whether a common noun or a verb or an adjective,owes its generality to some resemblance among the things referred to. Indeed,learning to use a word depends on a double resemblance:first,a resemblance between the present utterance of the word and past utterances of it and evey reasonable expectation depends on resemblance of circumstances,together with our tendency to expect similar causes to have similar effects... We cannot easily imagine a more familiar or fundamental notion than this notion of similarity,or a notion more ubiquitous in its applications... and yet, strangely,there's something logically repugnant about it. For we are baffled when we try to relate the general notion of similarity significantly to logical terms.
A standard of similarity is in some sense innate...Moreover in behavioral terms... it can be said equally of other animals that they have an innate standard of similarity too. It's part of our animal birthright and,interestingly enough,it's characteristically animal in its lack of intellectual status. At any rate we noticed earlier how alien the notion is to mathematics and logic.
...
The locus classicus is David Hume:"When I cast my eye on the known qualities of objects,I immediately discover that the relation of cause and effect depends not in the least on them." (A treatise on human nature).
A common signal of a child's developing awareness of causal relations,all too familiar to the child's parents,is an unceasing flood of "why?" questions. As the concept of causation falls into place and the differences among causes,reasons,and purposes are learned,the use of "why?" questions becomes more discriminating,and some that were previously asked are dropped. Whether there's a fundamental epistemological difference between awareness of causal regularities seems to me an open question,although I suspect that there's not. Both seem clearly to be learned,or perhaps one should say "acquired",from experience,and certainly,neither can be taught as abstractions,not,at least,until it has been acquired,from concrete instances.
Ah!Un 2e extrait du livre;A glossary of political theory...
la définition de "morality"...
A term that refers to injunctions of what to do,and how to behave,in particular circumstances. Political morality becomes problematic when focussed upon the state.It could be argued that it's difficult to see how the state can act morally when its distinctive attribute is the use of force to tackle conflicts of interest. The" morality" of the state is of a distinctively propagandist quality,designed to bully and coerce people into compliance.
Morality is sometimes seen as norms that are imposed from on high.This is the negation of morality since people who abide by norms out of fear the consequences,or as a result of lack of knowledge of the alternatives, cannot be said to act morally.Morality implies an autonomy and a willingness to criticise so that the "moral" injunctions associated with authoritarian rule; whether of a personal or institutional kind,undermine rather than further morality. The attempt to present politics as a science devoid of moral or normative implications is misguided. Science itself,whether natural or social,has moral implications,and the notion that factual statements must be morally neutral fails to understnd that values derive from statements that could only be considered meaningful if they postulate relationships. Thus,for example,a statement about apathy,for example,cannot but postulate some kind of relationship between apathy and a political system,and it,s in this relationship that we find value judgements. Hence morality is inherent in politics,since politics is concerned with relationships that result in conflict.

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Sun 16 Feb - 16:34

J'ai trouvé 2 bons extraits qui se rejoignent dans 2 livres..le 1er:Legal reason the use of analogy in legal argument et le 2e:The path of philosophy :truth,wonder,and distress...
1er:The experimental findings in cognitive and developmental psychology as well as patterns of ordinary thought that we all recognize give no support to accounts of analogical reasoning according to which the critical notion of relevant similarity is unexplained or mysterious or is attributed to an obscure and ineffable "intuition".Relevance has the same meaning in this context that it has in others.Without having any general rule or principle to work with,we often can tell with reasonable assurance what's likely to be relevant,because we have had more or less similar experiences in the past and are able to call them to mind and because we have a general sense,also acquired from experience,of how things work,what accounted for the past experience and is likely,in similar circumstances,to have the same effect.
Sometimes experiences fails us. Who would have thought that the mold that forms on bread in other foods would be the source of an invaluable medicine?
To say that we are able to draw an analogy between source and target without knowing a general rule or principle that accounts for it's not,of course,to say that there is no such principle. The predictability of experience depends on the stability of causal relationships;it's the task of science to capture and express that stability in explanatory principles.
...
Nevertheless,someone who's familiar with the law of torts would readily suppose that the rule about an innkeeper's liability has a bearing on a question about the liability of a steamboat operator,not because he has in mind a rule that applies to both but because his knowledge of the law tells him that the similarities between them relate to factors that commonly have a bearing on liability.
So also,if his knowledge extends so far,it would occur to him that there is another rule,about the operator of a railroad sleeping car,which also may be relevant and points in a different direction. More general knowledge about the law of torts and still more general understanding of the law's approach to matters of commercial dealing and personal and interpersonal responsibility may suggest other relevant rules,and will help him to assess the comparative relevance of one rule or another.
j'aimerais ajouter l'extrait d'un 3e livre avant le 2e... c'est Cultural evolution celui-là...
citation de Stephen Jay Gould( celui qui a écrit the mismeasure of man...):
"Biological evolution is a bad analogue for cultural change...Biological evolution is a system of constant divergence without subsequent joining of branches. Lineages,once distinct,are separate forever. In human history,transmission across lineages is perhaps,the major source of cultural change."
This criticism is another variant of the criticisms of cultural evolution encountered,whre an apparent difference between biological and cultural evolution (regarding particulate vs blending inheritance,or La marckian vs non-Lamarkian in inheritance is used to reject cultural evolution.
As for those earlier examples,the difference between biological and cultural evolution is far less clear-cut here than is often assumed. The distinction between a branching,divergent biological evolution and a blending,convergent cultural evolution is something of a distortion of both biology and culture. Although biological evolution was once thought to be treelike,recent decades have witnessed a major rethinking of this assumption.Geneticists have found that horizontal gene transfer is common in both bacteria and plants,wherein genetic material is transmitted across of species boundaries in bacteria due to horizontal gene transfer that rather than a tree of life,their evolutionary history can better be described as a ring of life.
So although cultural evolution might not resemble the branching,treelike vertebrate evolution that we humans are most familiar with,it may resemble quite closely a more blending invertebrate evolution.
Maintenant le 2e,path of philosophy...
A "hypothetical imperative" is an action-directing statement that tells you what to do under specific,hypothetical conditions. For instance, the statement "If you want to make money,you should get a job" is a hypothetical imperative. It tells you what you should do under the hypothesis that you want to make money.No one,of course,would confuse this sort of statement with a moral principle. It's simply a directive that tells you the means by which you can achieve the end that you want to achieve. As Kant writes,"If the action would be good merely as a means to something else,so is the imperative hypothetical." On the other hand, "if the action is reprensented as good in itself..then the imperative is categorical."
...
Of course,no such person really exists,but we are able to imagine such a person,and in doing so we recognize that such perfect moral decision-making depends upon the ability to freely and unerringly choose to act in accordance with what categorically ought to be done. The real world offers all sorts of temptations and incentives to act in a variety of ways, but when we do act morally,it's always in a manner that 1)is freely chosen,2)is motivated by a good will,and 3)is unconcerned about resulting costs or benefits.

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Wed 26 Feb - 7:11

Cette semaine j'ai choisis 2 extraits un de scientific thought (le 2e) et le 1er c'est un nouveau livre que j'ai commencé et que je trouve super bon... Il n'est pas dans le top 25 des grands livres mais il est dans le même dossier ceux avec mention d'honneur,Freud s'en sort avec une mention d'honneur! Mais pour le livre que j'ai choisis c'est:The structure of scientific revolution/Thomas S.Kuhn
J,ai eu ma 1ère paie de ma job un mois plus tard,je suis contente,c'est le pourqyoi de mon retard,je ne me donne pas de jours précis pour faire mes articles,ça dépend de mon temps... mais j'avance à tous les jours...là où je travaille je suis la meilleure qu'ils ont eu de tous les temps... l'organisme a 34 ans... la clientèle augmente à vue d'oeil,les gens restent plus longtemps et je fais remplir la boîte à dons,je suis fière de voir combien concrètement,tout le staff de TS pi d'intervenantes payées aussi par le gouvernement mais pas le même prix dépend de moi car si moi je n'y suis pas,c'est vide...
je crois vraiment en ce que mon lion m'a dit... y'en a que quand y meurent ça fait de la place d'autres un grand vide... ben!je suis dans la 2e catégorie pour sure!
1er extrait:History,if viewed as a repository for more than anecdote or chronology,could produce a decisive transformation in the image of science by which we are now possessed. That image has previously been drawn,even by scientists themselves,mainly from the study of finished scientific achievements as these are recorded in the classics and,more recently ,in the textbooks from which,each new scientific generation learns to practice its trade. Inevitably,however ,the aim of such books in persuasive and pedagogic ;a concept of science drawn from them is no more likely to fit. The enterprise that produced them than an image of a national culture drawn from a tourist brochure or a language text.
...
If science is the constellation of facts ,theories ,and methods collected in current texts,then scientists are the men who,successfully or not,have striven to contribute one or another element to that paticular constellation.
Scientific development becomes the piecemeal process by which these items habe been added,singly and in combination,to the ever growing stockpile that constitutes scientific technique and knowledge and history of science becomes the discipline that chronicles both these successive increments and the obstacles that have inhibited their accumulation.
...
That element of arbitrariness doesn't,however,indicate that any scientific group could practice its trade without some set of received beliefs. Nor does it make less consequential the particular constellation to which the group,at a given time,is in fact committed.Effective research scarcely begins before a scientific community thinks it has acquired firm answers to questionslike the following:what are the fundamental entities of which the universe is composed? How do these interact with each other and with the senses?What questions may legitimately be asked about such entitiesand what techniques employed in seeking solutions?
2e extrait:One of the basic functions of the memory, that of acquisition or retention,is related to the attention. The acquired material is retained;the treasure of the memory preserves for his later use the knowledge that he's acquiring. The retention of the material (memory) is the base of the third function of the memory,the recognition. Only we can recognize a new stimulus if we have already experienced it in advance and if then it was fixed in our mind (fixation) in such a way that to compare it with the new material leads us to recognizing mechanically to the exterior stimuli. We can reproduce intentionally the material that we have acquired and retained,that's to say, possess the function to evoke the past. The evocation takes place by means of the function of the memory that we call a memory or function to remember.

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Mon 3 Mar - 10:27

J'ai plusieurs bons extraits que je trouve avoir bien mixés ensemble...
Je commence avec l'intro de:A new ethic for humankind:The Cassandras:This chapter will tell of a number of people who were concerned about the way the world was and is unfolding in its track to the future. They are the "Cassandras" foretelling the future.
Acoording to Homer's Illiad,Cassandras was a beautiful young woman,blessed with the gift of prophecy by the god Apollo,who was infatuated with her.Unfortunately,because she shunned Apollo,at the last minute he added a twist to her gift.Cassandra was doomed to tell the truth,but never to be believed.As Laura Fitton says in her internet article:"...we call a Cassandra someone whose true words are ignored,since Cassandra's doom was to predict what others refused to believe."
In the Scientific thought...
What are the forms of the conscience?
The forms of the conscience are included by the aesthetics,the morality and the scientist. The development of the conscience includes a wide bogey that goes from the prepersonal thing to the personal thing and, from there,even the transpersonal;from the subconscious to the autoconscious thing thing,and from there even the supraconsciente,from the id to the ego and, from there,up to the spirit.
There is so,2 classes of impressions:
1.those who contribute knowledge;
2.the impressions of the feeling and of the will. A few and others usually transform in Ideas (this is,representations like contents of conscience reproduced).
An example of ideas there are the geometric figures,the colours,the weight of an object,the form,tec,that are remembered or imagine. Also Ideas are the sentimental representations of happiness or of pain and of desires or violitions;that as previous,they are a result of a memory or of the imagination.
All of the contents of the conscience or perception they are 2 classes:impressions and ideas. The first ones are properly sensations (to hear,to see,to feel,to wish,to push back...);the seconds,representations you (design),good that debilitated,of the first ones.To his shift,the impressions subdivide in 2 groups:
1-impressions of the sensation and,
2-impressions of the reflection.
Is here an impression that makes feel heat or I fry,be or famine across the senses. Next the conscience produces a copy of her,copies that usually remains softened once the sensation. To this copy Idea is called,and the impression wherefrom it comes,an impression of sensation. On having presented to him in the soul,later,such a accompanied idea of pleasure or pain,(or represented by an emotion),there can arise new impressions of desire or distaste,happiness or fear,etc. impress the above mentioned they're impressions of reflection.
....
Mechanisms for the construction of the Ideas or representations:
For what mechanisms do the ideas form in the individual? Plato was thinking that the reality is divided in 2.
a)A part is the world of the senses,on which only we can obtain imperfect knowledge using our 5 senses (approximate and imperfect).Of everything what exists in the world of the senses,we can say that everything flows and that nothing remains. There is nothing that's in the world of the senses,only it's a question of a heap of things that arise and perish.
b)Another part is the world of the Ideas,on which we can obtain true knowledge,by means of the use of the reason. Consequently,this world of the Ideas cannot be recognized by means of the senses. on the other hand,the Ideas are eternal and immutable.
In the Path of Philosophy...
Descartes dualistic metaphysics left Western philosophy with a picture of a world in which mind and body exist as completely different sorts of substances. Body,the material substance that forms the physical portion of the world,is completely inert and nonthinking;it possesses the quality of extension into space but has no consciousness of its own. Mind substance,on the other hand,is conscious. It thinks,feels,judges,understands,and allows for the existence of ideas and concepts,yet,it's completely nonphysical and so doesn't extend into space.
These 2 substances,Descartes claims,mix and intermingle with one another in such a manner that in human beings they "compose a certain unity",thus accounting for the everyday relationship between our physical and mental existence. One is reminded here of Socrates teacher Anaxagoras and his claim that the universe is made up of "seeds" of matter that are interpenetrated by the intelligence of nous or mind. Mind guides the body,intelligently making decisions concerning its movements. It's a sort of "ghost in the machine" that directs and controls the body,and after the death of our physical being,because mind is itself completely nonphysical in composition,it may even conceivably continue to exist apart from the body.

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Sun 9 Mar - 8:28

Je suis assez occupée cette semaine...J'ai choisis 2 définitions de:"A glossary of political theory":Prendre note que c'est un Sicilien qui a fondé le 1er syndicat,la sicile est le père fondateur de ce mouvement...Je le dis tout de suite car la 1ere phrase de la définition,je l'ai trouvé très bonne!
State:The state is an institution that claims to be sovereign over a particular society. Theorists differ as to wheter the state primarily uses force to order society or relies essentially upon morality. Some argue that the state is based upon force. In Weber's classic definition,the state is an institution that claims a monopoly of legitimate force for a particular territory. It's clear that while force is central to identifying the state,this force has to be monopolised,legitimate and focussed territorially. Others link the state to morality,arguing that the state is rooted in our notion of what's right. These writers don't deny that states use force: they merely argue that this isn't its central attribute.Others argue that the state is so complex that it's impossible to define.Easton,for example,contends that it would be better to speak of a political system rather than a state. There isn't only disagreement about what the state's,but also about when it arose. Those wo identify the state with morality tend to argue that only the modern (or liberal) state should be called a state,since earlier polities were unable to sharply divide what's public from the private,control the lives of all in society,and make a distinction between an office and the individual holding it. Whereas the "morality" school shows little interest in states origins (although Rousseau is an exception here) or argues (as in the case of Green) that states have always existed,the "force" school raises the question as to why states emerge,and what made it possible for early tribal societies (like contemporary international society) to resolve conflicts through using sanctions of a non-statist kind. This makes it possible to at least ask to whether it would be possible domestically for people to govern themselves without the state.
Syndicalism:Closely linked to anarchism,and smetimes called "anarcho-syndicalism", syndicalism stresses the importance of trade unions in the struggle for an emancipated society.The trade unions can only be vehicles for syndicalism if they are aloof from the limited objectives of "bread and butter" issues (the traditional fare of trade unionism),and aren't entangled with conventional politicians and the policies of the state. It espouses strikes and direct action by the workers,and thus is opposed to, and opposed by,Marxist political parties (Germany). Syndicalists stress the importance of local action against centralised bodies and tend to be powerful where liberal traditions are weak and conventional politics, has been discredited.The Confederaciòn Nacional dey Trabajo in Spain had massive support from workers who were hostile to the state and organised religion,and it played an important role during the Spanish civil war,clashing with the communists,social democrats and liberal republicans. The American International workers of the world or Wobblies were significant before and during the First World War,but drew heavily upon support from immigrant workers. Syndicalism is often violent in its tactics,and its association with theorists like Sorel has often led its critics to argue that it has an ideologically ambiguous character.

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Sat 15 Mar - 4:01

Pour cette semaine,je me suis trouvée un livres d'énigmes,je vais vous en donner 2 et les réponses dans le prochain article,je les trouvais bonnes... Mais avant dans the glossary of political theory,je voulais ajouter la définition de structure... quand je l'ai lus,je pensais surtout aux états... et dans le sens de ceux-ci...comme quand je regarde les stagiaires avec les débiles où je travaille... sous le prétexte de l'instruction... J'ai découvers Nikola Tezla récemment,je vais revenir sur ce quelqu'un que peu de gens entk,à Qc connaissent,pi qui pourtant à qui nous sommes redevables dans nos vies quotidiennes...
A Glossary of political theory:Structure;A concept that denotes linkages that occur independent of intention and aim. Structures are crucial to scientific study,since without identifying a structure,no explanation is possible.Structures occur in nature as well as in society,and social structures denote patterns that occur in nature as well as in society,and social structures denote patterns that occur independently of the human will. By this is meant that humans organise their lives in ways that they don't intend:there's necessarily a difference between what we think we are doing,and what actually happens in practice. In class-divided societies,people are capitalists or workers,for example. Human society will always be structural whether they like it or not,people are men or women,black or white,northerners or southerners,and so on. The presence of structures in society doesn't negate the existence of agency. Structures are the product of our activity,but the point is that we only grasp them imperfectly and one-sidedly. The idea put forward by some structuralists,that the text as structure cannot have an author,wrongly assumes that (social) structures aren't themselves the product of human activity.It doesn't follow that because structures are universal,they are timeless in character. On the contrary,structures change;according to an evolutionary time-scale in the world of nature,and through history in society. Structuralists who positthe existence of language as a system that structures reality take a one-sided view of the language we speak. Language alters society,but the way that words change the world have results that always differ from the intentions we have. The problem with many post-structuralists is that they reject the one-sidedness of "structuralism" only to substitute a one-sidedness of their own.One structures are seen as the product of,and always subject to,change,then the argument that these structures don't exist independently of our consciousness becomes redundant.
Dans le livres Worlds Hardest Puzzles:
1)"All right,Mr.Puzzle Answer Man,let's see you answer this one:
A word 1 know
6 letters it contains
substract just one
and 12 you'll find remains.
What's that word?
In 1930s,radio,the Puzzle Answer Man was very popular.Can you help him to prove that 6 minus one equals 12? If you succeed,pay yourself one shiny,silver dollar,the standard radio prize in those days.
2)"Could you please get me a pot of coffee,Ms.Upshot.I fear that I'm going to be up all night trying to reconcile this confounded checkbook."
Beginning balance for the month:54$
check 0221: 20$ balance: 34$
check 0222: 20$ balance: 14$
check 0223: 10$ balance: 4$
check 0224: 4$ balance: 0$
total: 54$ total: 52$
Thaddeus Tightwad has been trying to for hours to figure out why the 2 sides of his checkbook ledger aren't the same. Can you determine where the missing 2$ have gone?
Les réponses dans le prochain article... On peut voir l'astrologie et ma philosophie dans les réponses,si cela peut vous donner un indice...

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Sat 22 Mar - 8:05

Pour cette semaine j'ai choisis,sans oublier les réponses de mes puzzles de la semaine passée... une définition qui m'a fait penser à pd-roro pi à tout ce qui va avec aussi... sans lui dédier,même si d'une certaine façn c'est ça... Je voulais exprimer aussi que je suis bcp plus heureuse aujourd'hui,j'ai un petit travail,même si mes livres restent ma priorité absolue dans ma vie,c'est la raison pour laquelle je me lève le matin... alors voici mes réponses de puzzles...
Pour le 1er: Worlds Hardest Puzzles:
The word is "dozens".Take away one letter,the S,and you have "dozen",which of course is 12.
le 2e:There is no reason why the totals of the 2 sides of the ledger should ever be the same. The total of the balances on the ledgers right side have nothing to do with a total of the sums withdrawn from the account.
Pour ce dernier,je trouvais l'exemple de vierge-balance parfait... la vierge qui analyse et compartimente et la balance qui me semble évident dans le problème c'est la raison pour laquelle j'ai chois de le mettre... j'en mettrai d'autres àl'occasion,certains demandent des dessins,ce qui dans mon cas est dur...
Pour la définition qui me faisait penser à pd-roro c'est dans:Dictionary of Allusions.
Missing link:A person with Neanderthal characteristics,such as limited intelligence or an overhanging brow.For many years evolutionists sought the missing link,a supposed intermediate form between Homo sapiens and the apes. (pour ceux qui le connaissent ils le reconnaîtront surement) Various finds were identified as providing evidence of the existence of such a creature,but most have since been discounted.When he heard the news he lost his temper completely and stamped about the apartment like he was the missing link.
Pour la suite,j'ai choisis 2 subjects totally different mais ils se retrouvent dans les mots et je trouve que c'est un bel exemple de l'infiniment petit à l'infiniment grand des choses... le 1er extrait vient de Cultural Evolution and le 2e de:Encyclopedia of Chemistry.
Cultural Evolution:
Drift and demography in cultural macroevolution:
Phylogenetic methods aren't the only tools borrowed by cultural evolution researchers from biologists to study patterns and trends in cultural macroevolution. In chapter 3,we saw how some cultural evolution researchers have also borrowed models of genetic drift from population genetics to explain certain patterns of cultural change. Genetic (or "neutral") drift describes how random processes such as sampling error in small populations can generate evolutionary change despite the lack of any selection for particular alleles.We drew an analogy with the lottery:even though each number in a lottery theoretically has the same probability of being drawneach week,in reality some numbers are drawn more often than other numbers simply by chance. In the same way,selectively neutral alleles cn increase in frequency or disappear from small populations of organisms simply by from small populations of organisms simply by accident,such as when the sole carrier of a rare allele happens to die young. Population geneticists such as Sewell Wright in the 1930's and later Motoo Kimura and others have formalized these processes in mathematical models,yielding key insights into the conditions under which biologists can expect to observe genetic drift,and the kind of patterns that biologists would expect to see in natural populaions if drift has been acting. For example,models predict (and subsequent laboratory experiments have confirmed) that,when drift is the only process acting,then 1) genetic variation gradually drops over time,as rare alleles are lost as described above and eventually just a single allele remains; 2)different alleles will become fixed in different populations,because of the random nature of the drift; 3)drift occurs faster in smaller populations,because smaller populations are more vulnerable to accidents of sampling. These models provide specific predictions fo biologists studying organisms in the wild. For example, a biologist who observed low within-group genetic diversity (point1) and high between-group diversity (point 2) in their study species might conclude that drift is responsible for such a pattern.
Encyclopedia of Chemistry:
Molecular modeling: Models,representations of real objects,have long been used to understand,explain,predict,and ultimately,harness and exploit natural phenomena. They range from simple descriptions or drawings useful for conveying basic concepts to precise mathematical relationships that can be embodied in sophisticated computer programs. Whatever their form,all models are approximations with individual stengths and limitations that must be astutely applied to solve particular problems quickly and properly. Molecular modeling deals with the representation and prediction of structures,properties,interactions, and reactions of chemical substances.
It's intimately linked with experimental investigations of atomic and molecular structure and determinations of physical,chemical,and biological properties;mathematics (including statistics);and computer science and graphics.At its heart is the representation of molecular structure and interactions,especially chemical bonding.Modern molecular modeling has many uses as an effective communication tool,as a means of simulating chemical phenomena taht are difficult or impossible to observe experimentally ,ultimately,as a means of designing new compounds and materials.Chemists have historically employed various means of representing molecular structure. 2-dimensional drawings of atoms connected by lines are some of the most common molecular representations.

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Re: Philosophie...

Post  Admin on Sat 29 Mar - 9:44

Pour faire suite à mon article de la semaine passée,pour démontrer l'effet infiniment grand à l'infiniment petit des choses,humains inclus,les planètes et leurs significations aussi... Dans le nouveau,j'ai commencé à apprendre sérieusement à jouer aux échecs,je l'avais appris dans l'enfance mais n'est pas utile aujourd'hui...à part ça,c'est correct dans ma vie... j'aime ma job,Gilles a appris l'existence de normand cette semaine...je lui avais déjà dis,mais comme Will et Normand ne me croyait pas...malgré qu'il m'aime bien... Je suis la meilleure qu'ils ont eus et j'y fais mon exercice physique tous les jours... je trouve tjrs que cela est de la régression par contre... J'ai appis bcp de choses à pleins de monde dans toutes sortes de choses... cela me rend heureuse et j'aime mon milieu de travail... même si mon forum et mes études personnelles sont prioritaires dans ma vie...
J'ai fait un petit mix de plusieurs matières différentes encore cette semaine...
1)Encyclopedia of Chemistry
2)Mastering Chess
3)Legal reason the use of analogy in legal argument
1)Each line rpresents a chemical bond that,in the simplest case,is a pair of electrons shared between the connected atoms,resulting in a very strong attractive interatomic force.The various interatomic forces define the structure or shape of a molecule,while its chemistry is dependent on the distribution of electron,a change in bonding.
Molecular mechanics computes molecular potential energy using a force field,a series of discrete mathematical functions that reflect measurable intra- and inter-molecular forces. Force fields have also been parameterized using Quantum Mechanics results,a technique useful to extend Molecular Mechanics capabilities when little or no experimental data are available for specific atom or bond types. MM is inherently limited to studying systems composed of well characterized atom and bond types. It provides molecular geometries in good agreement with experimental values and reliable comparative energies,but it cannot model chemical reactions. The biggest advantage of MM is its speed.MM studies can consist of multiple molecules including thousands of atoms. MM force fields can also be used in moleculars dynamics and Monte Carlo calculations,which are used to investigate time-dependent phenomena (protein folding),and in free-energy calculations that aren't feasible with QM.
The ab initio QM methods are based solely on the laws of quantum mechanics and therefore have the broadest applicability.They can be carried out at different levels of approximation in order to balance the required accuracy against the computaional demands. The quality of the calculations is pincipally determined by the selected basis set (functions that describe the atomic orbitals) and the treatmentof electron correlation (interaction between electrons).Generally,moderate basis sets are sufficient for accurate ground-state calculations,but large basis sets and poper treatment of electron correlation are required to model excited states,transient species,or chemical reaction mechanisms.
2)Tactics:This is the term given to the hand-to-hand fighting which takes place on the chessboard when the opposing pieces come into direct contact with each other,attacking and defending. Basically,a tactical move involves a threat,or a series of threats,to which the opponent must respond immediately. It's normally a forcing sequence,and thus the number of replies is generally limited.
Combinations: A combination is a series of tactical moves played in order to gain an advantage (or lessen or neutralize a disadvantage.) It may span anything from to more than 15 moves.
It should be noted that mating attack and material gain combinations are closely linked and the ideas used in a material gain combination can be (and very frequently are) used to mate the enemy king. Positional combinations are played to increase the scope of one's pieces,laying the ground work for a future material gain or mating combination.
Drawing combinations speak for themselves and give the tactically acute player a chance of snatching lost games from the fine.
3)The legal knowledge and experience that lawyers and judges bring to the facts of a case tell them,just as Mary's knowledge and experience tell her,that some similarities count for the matter at hand and others don't.Their ability to make such distinctions is no more mysterious in the one case than in the other. If a legal analogy cannot be put to the test in the same way that a practical analogy can,it's nevertheless subject to tests of consistency and coherence with rules of law that together indicate the relevance of particular facts to the issue in question, although neither individually nor collectively do they prescribe conclusively for the specific situation.
The idea that law could be studied scientifically didn't originate with Langdell (Oxford);the reference to science didn't necessarily mean more than that,one way or another,law is a body of knowledge,composed of true principles that can be studied and learned. Legal doctrine,it was supposed,composes a coherent,logically orderly system,which provides a correct outcome for every case. According to a view prominent in the first half of the 19th century,at the apex of the system are transcendental principles of natural justice and reason,from which the doctrine is deduced. Therefore,although decisions in actual cases are evidence of the law,they aren't to be relied on entirely,because judges err and cases may be in conflict. The effort of the legal scientist is to discern the true first principles and to work from there. Lagdell's notion of legal science was quite different.The doctrines of the law,he argued,aren't to be traced to transcendental principles,but are to be found exclusively in cases. The study of cases themselves,scientifically pursued,would,he thought,yield a small number of fundamental principles from which the outcomes of concrete cases follow. How,without circularity,the outcome in particular cases could be deduced from the hierarchy of principles and at the same time provide the raw material from which the principles are derived inductively remained obscure.

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